Study Guide: Unit 3

89 terms by lbranson 

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atmosphere

- Gases are densest at sea level and thin rapidly upward from surface
- Humans are designed to live at the bottom of this "ocean" of air

weather

Temporary State of the atmosphere

climate

Average of weather conditions in a place or over a long period of time

meteorology

Science of weather (physics of air)

climatology

Study of climate

nitrogen

Makes up 78% of the atmosphere

oxygen

Makes up 21% of the atmosphere

carbon dioxide

...

troposphere

- Closest to surface
- Weather processes occur there (zone of change)
- Clouds and turbulence
- Thickness varies from 3 mi. at poles to 10 mi. at the Equator
in the troposphere, temperature is related to altitude.
- The higher you go, the colder it gets.
- Temperature decreases at a steady rate
called the normal lapse rate.

normal lapse rate

3.5 ℉ 1,000 feet or 6.4 ℃ per 1,000 meters

stratosphere

- located above the troposphere
- Jet planes fly there (less turbulence than in troposphere
- Very cold (60℉ below zero)

jet stream

Located at boundary between warm and cold air
Planes travel in the jet stream to get to destinations quicker.
E -> W = Quicker
W -> E = Slower

ozonosphere (chemosphere)

Contains the ozone layer

ozone layer

- blocks ultraviolet radiation
- protects us against skin cancer
- protects against cataracts
- protects crops
- ozone layer is destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons

iconosphere (thermosphere)

- above ozonosphere (mostly in thermosphere)
- particles are electrically charged (ionized)
- location of Aurora
- AM radio communications
- radio waves bounce off layers in ionosphere

controls of climate

1. Latitude *
2. Altitude (Elevation) *
3. Ocean Currents
4. Land and water distribution
5. Oceans heat and cool more slowly than land areas
6. Mountain barriers
7. Storms

temperature

...

insolation

...

ultraviolet radiation

...

infrared radiation

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greenhouse effect

...

thermometers

...

Fahrenheit scale

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Celsius (centigrade) scale

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radiation

...

conduction

...

convection

...

advection

...

temperature inversion

...

daily temperature lag

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seasonal temperature lag

...

isotherm

...

humidity

...

precipitation

...

rain and snow gauges

...

hygrometer

...

psychrometer

...

relative humidity

...

dew point

...

condensation

...

evaporation

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radiation fog

...

advection fog

...

high inversion fog

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evaporation fog

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hygroscopic (condensation) nuclei

...

cirrus clouds

...

stratus clouds, nimbo stratus

...

cumulus clouds, cumulonimbus

...

sublimation

...

silver iodide

...

dry adiabatic rate

...

wet adiabatic rate

...

convectional precipitation

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orographic precipitation

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rain shadow

...

cyclonic precipitation

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frontal precipitation

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pressure

...

mercurial barometer

...

aneroid barometer

...

standard pressure

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Hadley Cell

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isobars

...

wind vane

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Beaufort scale

...

anemometer

...

Coriolis Effect

...

doldrums

...

trade winds

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horse latitudes

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prevailing westerlies

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polar easterlies

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monsoon

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land and sea breeze

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mountain and valley breeze

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katabatic (gravity) winds

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foehn or chinook winds

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Santa Ana Winds

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Scirocco winds

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cyclone

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anticyclone

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tropical cyclone

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hurricane

...

typhoon

...

thundershower

...

tornado

...

climatic classification

...

Koeppen

...

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