Lsb 382 GITMD

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It's all about what makes poo watery!!

Name six causitive agent groups

Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Helminths, Algae

What types of gropus are considered high risk

elderly, neonates and travellers to high risk zones

What is the principal symptom associated with GITMD

diarrhoea

Diarrhoea can be

microbial or non microbial in origin

Diarrhoea symptoms can be classed as

non inflammatory or inflammatory

Inflammatory diarrhoea characterised by

Leucocytes in stools
Blood in stools
mucus in stools
severe abdo pain in lower left quadrant (effects colon)
+/- fever

Non inflammatory diarrheoa characterised by

no leucocytes in stools
rarely blood in stools
raely mucus in stools
greatly increased watery stools
no one to slight abdo pain (effects small intestine)
+/- fever

What are appropriate samples for specimen collection

Faeces and vomitus

Types of lab diagnostics

Macroscopic: this a visual inspection to see consistancy
Microscopic: closer inspection using microscope to detect the presence of blood, mucus or pus that weren't visible to the naked eye. Can tell you whether it was a inflammatory infection or not.
Stool culture: This is where bacteria are grown for identification to distinguish the causitive agent
ASA can be used if anti biotics are to be used.

Diarrheoa symptoms are usually

self resolving in immunocompetant individuals and antibiotics are normally contraindicated

Modes of transmisssion

Fingers, Food, Flies, Faeces, Fomites and Water

anitbiotics may be prescribed if

the condition is chronic, at risk group is involved, the agent is Shigella. note antibiotics generally only work on bacterial conditions and may actually make other conditions worse as they kill of NRF.

Things that dictate risk status

Microbial type
immuno status of the host
environment

Diarrhoeal infections normally target and alter the function of

The LGIT : normal function water, electrolyte absorption and excretion of faeces. Hence why if this function is altered water and electrolyes are expelled creating watery faeces. This process leads to dehydration which can be life threatening in chronic cases.

Preventative measures for GITMD

Yes by employing standard enteric precautions

GITMD effects

normal functioning of the of GIT

Where are the principal sites of infection for GITMD

small intestine and colon

What is the principal tissue targeted by GITMD

Mucous membranes of the LGIT

Vomiting is frequently indicated with what type of agent

Food toxins: bacteria is coated with toxin and is preformed in the food so doesn't need to replicate in GIT to cause symptoms. Indicated by rapid onset and often multiple cases from people consumiing the same food. (enterotoxins commonly indicated Staph.aureus & Bacillus cereus)

Bacterial GITMD common to Australia

Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherchia coli, Shigella, Listeria, Yersina, Bacillus, Clostridum, Vibro species

Viral GITMD common to Australia

Rotavirus, Noravirus

Fungal GITMD common to Australia

Candida albicans

Protozoans GITMD

Giardia, Cryptosporidium

Helminths (worms) GITMD

enterobus, Taenia, Echinococcus, Ascaris, Strongyloides

GITMD disease are commonly transfered via

the faecal oral route

Shigella is a

human specific pathogen requires mandatory treatment with antibiotics and reporting to limit spread

Dysentery

characterised by blood, mucus and pus in stool.

Inflammatory diarrheoa may be

severe, chronic and require therapy

Acute diarrhoea is characterused by

liquefied stools

Why would neonates be particularly vulnerable

as they easily succumb to dehydration and have immature immune systems

What is the best way to control GITMD

By targeting the microbial agent and tranmission routes

Can bacteria penetrate the mucosal epithelium and attack other organs

yes

Most common sources

water and food

Treatment generally required

rehydration

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