freedoms to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression
a constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
due process clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
the legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the fourteenth amendment
the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
free exercise clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast
a tort consisting of false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
unreasonable searches and seizures
obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the fourth amendment. Probable cause and/or a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence.
a warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States that imposes restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused of crimes
the situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment
cruel and unusual punishment
punishment prohibited by the 8th amendment to the U.S. constitution
right to privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.