one's subjective sense of being a man or a women. This sense is usually acquired around 3 years old.
A set of culturally specific norms concerning the expected behaviors & attitudes of men and women
Rod shaped structures containing the genetic material that determines a person's inherited characteristics.
Wolffian duct system
A primitive duct system found in embryos that, if allowed to develop, becomes the male reproductive system.
A primitive duct system found in embryos, if allowed to develop, becomes the female reproductive system.
Mullerian duct-inhibiting substance
: A chemical secreted by the testicles during embryonic development that causes the Mullerian ducts to shrink & disappear.
Individuals with a combination of male & female anatomical features, or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with anatomical sex.
A person with both male and female reproductive systems as a result of failure of the primitive gonads to differentiate properly during embryonic development.
A condition in which a person is born with ambiguous genitalia as a result of a hormonal abnormality.
A condition in girls in which the adrenal glands excrete too much testosterone during fetal development, causing masculinization. This includes enlargement of the clitoris and labia, so that at birth the genitals are sometimes mistaken for those of a boy.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
A condition in which the testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone during male embryonic development, but the tissues do not respond to it. As a result, a clitoris, labia, and a short vagina develop, but the internal female structures do not develop because the testicles still millerian duct-inhibitory substances.
DHT Deficiency Syndrome
A type of androgen insensitivity syndrome in which, because testosterone is not converted into dihydrotestosterone, boys' external genitals do not develop properly. Development occurs at puberty with the rise in testosterone.
The feeling of being trapped in a body of the opposite sex.
An adult whose gender identity does not match his or her biological sex.
Gender Identity Disorder
A disorder with the criteria: (a) behaviors that indicate identification with the opposite gender, and (b) behaviors that indicate discomfort with one's own anatomy & gender roles
An individual whose gender roles are opposite of those that society expects based on his or her anatomy.
Two meanings: (1) the adoption of the sec roles of the same sex parent by a child, and (2) in advertising, to identify or relate to a product.
: A type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior.
Following the behaviors of someone taken as one's model
the knowledge that one's gender is constant & will not change. Acquired around the age 7.
Evolutionary (sociobiological) theory
In reference to sex differences in human behavior, states that the behavioral differences are due to the different reproductive pressures men and women faced over thousands of generations.
Sociocultural (microstructural) theory
States that the psychological differences between men & women are a social construction.
Oversimplified, preconceived beliefs about the gender roles of men and women.
The ability of an individual to display a variety of personality characteristics, both masculine and feminine, depending on whether a trait or behavior is appropriate in a given situation. It is often viewed as a positive characteristic that gives an individual greater adaptability.
A personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on "getting the job done."
A personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on "an affective concern for the welfare of others."
The process of internalizing society's beliefs; the manner in which a society shapes individual behaviors and expectations of behaviors.
Ideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with their environment.
Same-sex sexual behavior between adult men and boys
Sexual Identity Developmen
A term for disclosing one's homosexuality or bisexuality to others.
A distinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives.