Modern Biology Chapter 30

44 terms by Altiora 

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antheridium

a male reproductive structure that produces hundreds of flagellated sperm by mitosis

archegonium

a female reproductive structure that produces a single egg by mitosis

homospory

the production of one type of spore

sorus

a cluster of sporangia

microspores

male spores

megaspores

female spores

heterospory

the production of different types of spores

integument

a thick layer of cells

micropyle

a small opening in the integument

ovule

a structure formed from the megasporangium and its integument

pollen grain

a microgametophyte of a seed plant

pollination

the transfer of pollen to ovules

pollen tube

a slender extension of the pollen grain that enables sperm to reach an egg

receptacle

the swollen tip of a floral branch

sepals

make up the outer whorl

petals

make up the next whorl

stamens

the male reproductive structures

anther

contains microsporangia

filament

a stalk-like structure that supports an anther

carpels

the female reproductive structures

pistil

one or more carpel fused together

ovary

the enlarged base of a pistil

style

usually stalk-like structure that arises from the ovary

stigma

the tip of the style

embryo sacs

the female gametophytes in angiosperms, and form within the ovary of the pistil

polar nuclei

the 2 nuclei that migrate to the center of the cell

tube cell

a structure that grows from the larger of the 2 cells in pollen grain formation

generative cell

enclosed in the tube cell and will divide by mitosis to form 2 sperm

nectar

a nourishing solution of sugars

double fertilization

the process of 2 cell fusions

propagation

the production of new individuals

seed coat

a protective coat surrounding the seed

plumule

the shoot tip, along with any embryonic leaves

epicotyl

extends from the pumule to the attachment point of the cotyledons

hypocotyl

extends from the attachment point of the cotyledons to the radicle

radicle

the embryonic root

hilum

a scar that marks where the seed was attached to the ovary wall

dormancy

a state of reduced metabolism in which growth and development do not occur

clone

exact duplicate of an organism

vegetative reproduction

an asexual reproduction involving vegetative parts of a plant

cuttings

new plants grown from piece of stems and roots that are cut

layering

the process of causing roots to form on a stem

grafting

the joining of 2 more plant parts to form a single plant

tissue culture

the production of new plants from pieces of tissue placed on a sterile nutrient medium

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