cell death

Created by rach33ael 

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apoptosis and necrosis

two major pathways of cell death

apoptosis

chromatin margination

apoptosis

nuclear margination

apoptosis

non-random DNA cleavage

apoptosis

cell shrinkage

apoptosis

maintenance of plasma and organelle membrane

apoptosis

apoptotic bodies

apoptosis

blebbing with budding

apoptosis

activation of a family of proteases called caspases

apoptosis

atp levels are maintained 30-50%

apoptosis

cytochome c release

apoptosis

activation of p53

apoptosis

no inflammation

necrosis

pynkotic nuclei

necrosis

chromatin clumping

necrosis

random/no DNA cleavage

necrosis

cell swelling

necrosis

loss of plasma and organelle membrane integrity

necrosis

swelling of mitochondria and ER

necrosis

blebbing without budding

necrosis

caspases are not involved

necrosis

other proteases (calpains)

necrosis

high levels of Ca2+ inside the cell

necrosis

inflammation

apoptosis

can affect single cells

apoptosis

nucleus dissolves

apoptosis

phagocytosis

apoptosis

little loss of intracellular contents

necrosis

affects multiple cells

necrosis

loss of no intracellular contents

necrosis

no phagocytosis

mitochondrial function

____ is one of the major determinates of how a cell will die (membrane integrity, ATP levels, pro-apoptotic proteins)

cytochrome c

mitochondrial protein released during cell singling events (if atp is present, will form with another protein to recruit caspase-9 and activate it. caspase-9 will activate other caspases)

necrosis

if mitochondrial function is lost than ATP levels decline (<30%). if atp decreases enough Na+/K+ ATPase will not work, Na+ enters the cell along with water and Ca2+ = cell swelling

caspases

family of cystein proteases

interleukin 1-beta converting enzymes (ICE)

first family member of caspases to be identified

initiator, executioner (downstream), cytokine processors

caspases 15 different members divided into 3 groups:

2,8,9,10,12

initiator caspases involves:

executioner caspases, intrinsic, extrinsic

initiator caspases activates ______ ______; two processes:

intrinsic

mitochondrial, er, or nuclear mediated

extrinsic

receptor mediated

caspases

____are responsible for many of the features of apoptosis

p53, cell growth, cell death, cell cycle

tumor supressor protein that mediates several cellular processes:

p53

mutated in over 50% of human cancers, loss of ____ is believed to be a key event in carcinogenesis in prostrate and breast tumors

mutated, apoptosis

_____p53 makes cell more resistant to ______

caspases

p53 induces ______ in response to nuclear damage

necrosis

induced by multiple mechanisms

necrosis

loss of er and mitochondrial function

necrosis, ATP, Ca2+

almost always involves loss of ____ and increases in intracellular ____

necrosis, ATP,Ca2+

apoptosis can turn into _____, dependent on ___ and ___

concentration of drug, cellular status (cell cycle, nutritional, age)

one drug can induce both (not at the same time) depends on:

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