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taxonomy

science of classification

Carolus Linnaeus

came up with what is known as the modern system of classification

bionomial system

based on a two-part name for each organism

genus

first part of the two-part name for each organism

species

second part of the two-part name for each organism

domain Bacteria

made up of prokaryotes; includes bacteria

domain Archaea

made up of prokaryotes; includes extremophiles

extremophiles

organisms that live in extremely harsh environments that most other organisms could not

halophiles

organisms that live in extremely salty conditions

thermophiles

organisms that live in extremely hot conditions

methanogens

extreme anaerobes that release methane gas as a waste product

domain Eukarya

made up of eukaryotes

kingdom Protista

eukaryotes; contains organelles and a true nucleus; most unicellular, some form colones

division

another term for phylum

nonvascular plants

plants without vascular tissue

vascular plants

has vascular tissue found in plants

seedless plants

plants with ferns

gymnosperms

plants with cones

angiosperms

plants with flowers

xylem

the vascular tissue through which water and minerals move in some plants

pholem

the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants

spores

ferns have _____ which can be scattered by wind

conifer

refers to teh cones that carry the seeds of plants

monocot

plants named for their cotyledons

cotyledon

single-seed leaves

dicot

plants that have two seed leaves; netlike veins in their leaves; flower parts in multiple of four or five, vascular tissue arranged in a ring, a taproot

kingdom Fungi

eukaryotic; multicellular; have a filamentous structure; multinucleate; heterotrophic; absorptive feeders; classified as decomposers

kingdom Animalia

eukaryotic; multicellular; heterotrophic; most diverse of six kingdoms

sessile

nonmoving

foot

how mollusks move

visceral mass

where the organs of mollusks are contained

mantle

region of mollusk that may secrete a shell

metanephridia

excretory tubes; mini kidneys; in each segment of annelids

Malpighian tubules

excretory organs of insects and other terrestrial arthropods

taxa

levels of organizations

domains

a taxonomic category above the kingdom level

Monera

prokaryotic bacteria, blue-green algae, and various primitive pathogens

decomposers

organisms that recycle dead matter

pathogens

disease-causing bacteria

genetic engineering

technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism

conjugation

primitive form of sexual reproduction

amoeba

naked freshwater or marine or parasitic protozoa that form temporary pseudopods for feeding and locomotion

paramecium

ciliated (it propels itself via cilia) protist that lives in fresh water and eats other tiny organisms for food

euglenas

green unicellular algae found in fresh water, when they're in sunlight, they're autotrophs, without sunlight, they're heterotrophs, contains pigments that helps find light sources for food, moves using flagellum

heterotophic eukaryotes

all fungi are _____

extracellular digestion

digestion that takes place outside of the cell

saprobes

organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter

chitin

making up fungi cell wall

pioneer organisms

organisms that are the first to colonize a barren environment in an ecological succession

gametophyte

the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

sporophyte

the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

cell

basic unit of all forms of life

tissue

group of similar cells that perform a particular function

organ

group of tissues that work together to perform related functions

porifera

sponges

cnidarians

hydra and jellyfish

platyhelminthes

flatworm and tapeworms

germ layers

main layers that form various tissues and organs of the body

ectoderm

outermost layer; becomes skin and nervous system

endoderm

innermost layer; becomes viscera (guts) or digestive system

mesoderm

middle layer; becomes blood, muscles, bones

diploblastic

animals with only two cell layers

mesoglea

middle glue, holds the ectoderm and endoderm together

triploblastic

animals that have three true cell layers

radial symmetry

body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body

bilateral symmetry

body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves

coelom

fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm

acoelomates

animals with no body cavity

pseudocoelomates

animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm

coelomates

animals with a true coelom

fragmentation

a kind of reproduction that occurs when an individual breaks up into pieces, each of which grows into a new individual

hermaphorodites

having both male and female parts

polyp

form of porifera; vase shaped; mostly sessile

medusa

form of porifera; upside-down bowl shaped; mostly motile

gastrovascular cavity

digestive chamber with a single opening

lysosomes

filled with enzymes used to break down food

cnidocytes

stinging cells

nematocysts

stingers

nematodes

roundworms

annelids

segments worms like earthworms, leeches

nephridia

excretion of nitrogen waste (urea)

closed circulatory system

system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels

mollusks

squids, octopuses, slugs, clams, snails

soft body

_____ are often protected by a hard calcium-containing shell

open circulatory system

system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels

hemocoels

blood filled spaces found in open circulatory systems (1)

sinuses

blood filled spaces found in open circulatory systems (2)

arthropods

insecta (grasshopper), crustacea (shrimp, crab), arachnida (spider)

trachea

air ducts that bring air from the environment into hemocoels

echinoderms

sea stars (starfish), sea urchins

chordates

fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

notochord

rod that extends the length of the body; serves as flexible axis

homeotherms

animals that maintain a consistent body temperature

endotherms

animals that are able to raise their body temperature

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