Ch 29 Alterations in GI Function

Created by mteper 

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41 terms

Hematemesis

Blood in vomit

Upper

Bright red blood in vomit

Blood from stomach/small int.

Dark Red blood in vomit; if dark brownish=ulcer

Melana

Blood in poooooop

From lower/rectum

Bright red blood in poop

Above Ileocecal Valve (where large and small int join)

Dark Red blood in poop

Dysphagia

Diffculty swallowing relating to nerve; narrowing could be from Hiatal Hernia or brain tumor

Hiatal Hernia

Pouch in esophagus that goes into pathway and can collect food; as gets full you may have choking sensation or vomit after eating

Esophageal Diverticulum

Pouch in esophagus that collects food and needs surgery to remove

Esophageal Verices

bleeding in esophagus from acid in stomach going up it or too much alcohol

Gastroesophageal Reflex (GERD)

backward movement of GASTRIC contents (ACID) into esophagus; PYROSIS aka heartbur; caused by weak esophageal sphincter; may be caused by obesity; pain 30-60 mins after eating; MUCOSAL tissue injury; CANCER RISK: constant esoph burning causes DYSPLASI; complication of Barrett Esophagus (Genetic)

Cancer of the Esophagus

Males 2:1, older than 50; Squamos cell cancer (ETOH or smoking); ADENOCARCINOMA- Barretts Esophagus/Upper Stomach; Symptoms: Dysphagia, WEIGHT LOSS, fatigue, pain w/ swallowing; POOR PROGNOSIS b/c usually found late/lots of room to grow (long hollow tube) and can spread

Gastritis

Inflamm of Mucosa (lining); Acute or Chronic

Acute Gastritis

Transient inflammation of mucosal lining (very quick progression) 5 hours after consump of bactera, alcohol binge, caffeince, ASA; EX: food poisoning

Chronic Gastritis

Inflammation of mucosal lining w/ no erosions but ATROPHY of epithelial of stomach; from chronic use of alcohol, caffeine, smoking, NSAIDS

Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)

Ulcers caused by H Pylori: flagellar bacteria often found in wells; live in mucosa by secreting urease (ammonia) that buffers acidity; Symptoms: burning, more pain when empty stomach; food helps calm it

Curling Ulcers

Ulcers due to physiological stress such as burns, trauma, sepsis; in ICU; put MYLANTA into body

Cushing Ulcers

Stress ulcer arising in people w/ intracranial injury, operations, or tumors. (inc in ICP intracranial pressure is pushing against vagal nerve)

Stomach Cancer

Cancer caused by: Genetic, carcinogens, Gastritis, Gastric Polyps; Symptoms: Vague, Anorexia, weight loss (muscle wasting from Cachetin and TNF) indigestion, vomiting; LATE DIAGNOSES

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

(AKA SPastic Colon or Colitis);; Chronic alteration of Constipation then Diarrhea related to CHANGES IN STRESS HORMONES; Disorder of Small/Large Intestine that is chronic and recurrent; more frequent in stressed (constipated) and women (estrogen)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis; in young adults; familial; systemic symptoms: may have symptoms in rest of body (spine arthritis, optic inflammation, stomatitis) SYMPTOMS: diarrhea (more w/ ulcerative Colitis) Colicky Pain, weight loss, malaise(low feeling of discomfort), low fever

Crohn's Disease

Inflamm Bowel Disease associated w/ Fibrous Granulomatous inflamm response, less flexible tissue, doesnt allow for mobility, Sporadic, "skip", cobblestone pattern, NO bleeding, LACK OF ABSORPTION

Ulcerative Colitis

Inflamm Bowel Disease associated w/ BLOODY DIARRHEA; ulcers, continuous, inc. calcium (chronic cell changes; risk for cancer)

VIRAL Infectious Enterocolitis

AGGRESSIVE Infective Enterocolitis caused by Rotavirus(spread fecal-oral route; common in day care centers), Norwalk Virus, and Adenovirus; Eventually goes away, given IV fluid; dont want to stop both diarrhea and vomiting b/c then virus stays inside

C difficile Infectious Enterocolitis

Type of Infectious Enterocolitis from abnormal Antibiotic use; from a bacteria in your body/your NATURAL FLORA; Symptoms: Acutely ill, fever, lethargy, tachycard, abd pain, distension/bloating

E. Coli Infectious Enterocolitis

Type of Infectious Enterocolitis caused by bood-borne transmission (undercooked meat)

Diverticular Disease

Herniations of the Sigmoid Colon (Meckel's); not found in underdeveloped countries; from lack of fiber and lack of exercise (causes stasis) DIVERTICULITIS: inflammation in LLQ; may resolve; need antibiotics, NPO (nothing per oral) or surgery

Appendicitis

Obstruction in the RLQ when appendix becomes inflammed, swollen, gangrenous; WHEN POOP GETS STUCK THERE=Stasis so inflames and causes pain; fast progression

Large Volume Diarrhea

inc. water, painless, no blood

Small Volume Diarrhea

painful, bleeding

Primary causes of constipation

lack of water and exercise

secondary causes of constipation

pregnant or neuro problem

Peritonitis

Inflammation of membrane that covers organs.
BACTERIAL: Bowel muscle is Perforated (ex: appendicitis);
CHEMICAL: Surgical irritant to membrane nerves. TREAT: NPO and IV

Volvulus

Twisting of bowel muscle causing intestinal obstruction

Intussusceptions

shortening of the bowel muscle caused by movement of one segment of the bowel into another (less than 2 yrs old)

Paralytic Peritonitis

Muscular impairment of peristalsis from chemical irritation after abd surgery

Malabsorption Syndrome

Caused by Celiac Sprue, Crohn's, Surgical Resections so shorter small int. so less absorption; If FAT not absorbed= Clay/yellow poop; also, fat soluble vitamin deficiency=Bleeding (vitamins A,D,K)

Celiac Sprue

Autoimmune Malabsorption disease triggered by eating GLUTEN; damages lining of small int.

Polyp Neoplasm

Neoplasm/mass that protrudes INTO gut lumen (hernia protrudes OUT)

Adenomatous Polyp

Polyp that is benign at beginning but cancer rish increases with age

Colorectal Neoplasm

Neoplasm thats SLOW growing and PREVENTABLE (constipation=more prone); 2nd Cancer Death in US (decreasing) #1 SYMPTOM: painless bleeding; Familial, concurrent bowel disease, high fat diet, low fiber, inactive, low free radical scavengers

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