Chapter 17: Plants and Fungi

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Mycorrhizae

Mutalistic, symbiotic relationship

How does the plant benefit in mycorrhizae? The fungus?

Fungus absorbs water and minerals.
Plant makes sugars through photosynthesis

Most fungi consist of a mass of threadlike...

hyphae

Mycelium

Mass of hyphae

What are hyphal cells separated by?

Cross walls with pores big enough for ribosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei

What does multinucleate?

They lack cross walls

Why do some hyphae have a huge surface area?

To absorb food

What are fungal cell walls made of?

Chitin

What does reproduction, sexual or asexual, involve?

Haploid spores

Example of asexual spores

molds, yeasts

Explain sexual spores

2 haploid spore come together from 2 different parents

How to hyphae reproduce asexually?

They form spores in sporangia at their tips

When food is depleted...

the fungus reproduces sexually

What percent of plant diseases are caused by fungi?

80%

Only 50 species of fungi are parasitic on animals, causing what?

Mycosis- fungal disease

Human infections include:

ringworm, yeast infection, athlete's foot

Systemic mycoses

Fungai infections that spread throughout the body, usually from inhaled spores

What do lichens consist of?

Associations of green algae held in fungai hyphae within a fungal network

Many lichen associations are...

mutalistic

How does fungus benefit from lichen associations? Algae?

Fungus gets food from it's photosynthetic partner
Algae retains water and minerals

How are lichens important to pioneers on new land?

They are rugged and able to live where there is little or no soil. They help form soil; often live on rocks

How do several species of ants and termites cultivate fungal gardens?

They collect leaves and fungi feed on the leaves and the fungi breakdown the cellulose that ants can't breakdown. The ants eat the swollen tips of hyphae. Insects feed fungi with leaves

What practical uses for fungi have for humans?

Yeast for alcohol and bread
Antibiotics
Edible mushrooms
Flavor cheeses
Truffles
Break down toxic pollutants
Clean oil spills

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