false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
disorders found only in particular cultures
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
A model of illness that holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
diathesis- stress model
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
constitutional predisposition to a particular disease or abnormality
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with significant personal distress or impaired functioning
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
excessive fears of particular objects or situations
Fear that they will embarrass themselves in a public place or social setting.
an anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights, animals, and other specific stimuli and situations
a morbid fear of great heights
a morbid fear of being closed in a confined space
a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
the uncontrollable need to preform repetitive acts
fear of fear, involving excessive concern that anxiety symptoms will spin out of control
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
person is pre occupied with minor symptoms and have an exaggerated belief that they have a life threatening illness
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom, such as release from ordinary responsibilities
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
seasonal affective disorder
Controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during winter months and improved mood during spring. Can be treated using phototherapy, using bright light and high levels of negative ions.
A chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to merit diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
periods of mania, or unusually elevated mood and extreme restlessness
a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
learned helplessness model
a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them
The way a person typically explains the things that happen in his or her life.
depressive attributional style
characteristic way of explaining negative events in terms of internal, stable, and global causes
removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check
any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganized delusions, among other features
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others
most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
Borderline personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by unstable emotions and self-image
Antisocial personality disorder (APD)
type of personality disorder characterized by callous attitudes toward others and by antisocial and irresponsible behavior
viewing events in black or white terms, as either all good or all bad
All-or-nothing thinking example
Do you view an ended relationship as a total failure?
tedency to blame or criticize yourself for disappointments or setbacks while ignoring external circumstances
Misplaced blame example
Do you automatically assume when things don't go as planned it's your fault?
tendency to think that one disappointment will inevitably lead to another
Misfortune telling example
If you get a rejection letter from a job you applied for, do you assume that all the other applications you sent will meet a similar fate?
focusng your attention only on the negative aspects of your experiences
Negative focusing example
When you get a job evaluation, do you overlook the praise and focus only on the criticism?
Dismissing the positives
snatchign defeat from the jaws of victory by trivializing or denying your accomplishments; minimizing your strengths or assets
Dismissing the positives example
When someone compliments you, do you find some way of dismissing it by saying something like 'It's no big deal' or 'Anyone could have done it'?
Jumping to conclusions
drawing a conclusion that isn't supported by the facts at hand
Jumping to conclusions example
Do you usually or always expect the worst to happen?
exaggerating the importance of negative events or personal flaws (making mountains of molehills)
Do you react to a disappointing grade on a particular examination as though your whole life is ruined?
reasoning based on your emotions rather than on a clear-headed evaluation of the available evidence
Emotion-based reasoning example
Do you think that things are really hopeless because it feels that way?
placing unrealistic demands on yourself that you should or must accomplish certain tasks or reach certain goals
Do you feel you should be further along in life than you are?
attaching negative labels to yourself or others as a way of explaining your own or others' behavior
Name calling example
Do you label yourself as lazy or stupid when you fall short of reaching your goals?
assuming that you're the cause of other people's problems
Mistaken responsibility example
Do you automatically assume that your partner is depressed or upset because of something you said or did?
Myth: people who threaten suicide are only seeking attention
Not so. Researchers report most people who commit suicide gave prior indications of their intentions or consulted a health provider beforehand
Myth: a person must be insane to attempt suicide
most people may feel hopeless or out of touch with reality, but they're not 'insane'
Myth: talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt the person to attempt it
An open suicide discussion with a depressed person doesn't prompt the person to attempt it. In fact, extracting a promise that the person won't attempt suicide before calling or visiting a mental health worker may prevent suicide
Myth: people who attempt suicide and fail aren't serious about killing themselves
most people who commit suicide have made previous unsuccessful attempts
Myth: if someone threatens suicide, it's best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threats
though some people do manipulate others by making idle threats, it is prudent to treat every suicidal threat as genuine and to take appropriate action
Axis 1 - clinical disorders/other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
mental disorders that impair functioning/problems that may warrant attenion but don't represent diagnosable mental disorders
Axis 2 - personality disorders/mental retardation
class of mental disorders characterized by ways of relating to others and adjusting to external demands/generalized delay or impairment in intellectual development
Axis 3 - general medical conditions
illnesses and other medical conditions that may be important to the understanding or treatment of the person's psychological disorder
Axis 4 - psychosocial and environmental problems
problems in the person's social or physical environment that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of mental disorders
Axis 5 - global assessment of functioning
overall judgement of the person's level of functioning in meeting the responsibilities of daily life
biological underpinnings of abnormal behavior
unconscious conflicts and motives underlying abnormal behavior
learning experiences that shape the development of abnormal behavior
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance
faulty thinking underlying abnormal behavior
social ills contributing to the development of abnormal behavior, such as poverty, racism, and prolonged unemployment; relationships between abnormal behavior and ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic level
interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in the development of abnormal behavior