Chapter 19

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toxic shock syndrome

A woman comes to the emergency department with fever and vomiting. She soon develops a red rash all over her body, and her blood pressure begins to drop. What is one possible diagnosis?

Corynebacterium

Which of the following bacteria divide by "snapping division" in which daughter cells remain attached in characteristic V-shapes?

Clostridium botulinum

Which of the following bacteria produce one of the most deadly bacterial toxins known?

live within cells and thus avoid exposure to the immune system of its

Listeria's virulence is directly related to its ability to

the bacteria's Lancefield antigen.

Streptococci are frequently classified by

mycoplasmas

Which of the following has been historically classified as Gram-negative bacteria but is genetically more similar to low G + C Gram-positive bacteria?

scarlet fever or rheumatic fever.

Untreated streptococcal pharyngitis may progress to

rheumatic fever

Which of the following diseases is considered an autoimmune disease triggered by bacterial infection?

they produce ?-lactamase.

Over 90% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can withstand the effect of penicillin. Why?

Its growth on Loffler's medium is used for absolute diagnosis of the bacterium.

Which of the following statements about diphtheria is FALSE?

Actinomyces.

The pus from an abscess in a patient's jaw contains microbes that form yellowish grainy masses and appear filamentous under the microscope. Neither antifungal medication nor a normal course of antibiotics has been effective in treating the infection. The abscess is likely the result of infection with

the black eschars it produces on human skin.

Anthrax, which means "charcoal" in Greek, derives its name from

It is primarily a disease of humans.

Which of the following statements about Bacillus anthracis is FALSE?

Mycobacterium species.

A sample of fluid from the lungs contains microbes that grow in filaments, and the filaments tend to align with one another. The cells stain poorly in the Gram stain and are a pink-red when acid-fast stained. The bacteria in the sample are

Mycobacterium leprae

Which of the following bacteria cause Hansen's disease?

because it is strictly aerobic.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is distinguished from other members of the genus

Clostridium difficile

Which of the following bacteria can cause life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis?

acne

What is the most common disease caused by Propionibacterium?

the smaller polypeptide of its toxin can block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters by inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system, causing simultaneous contraction of both muscles in an antagonistic pair.

How does the toxin from Clostridium tetani produce its action?

Streptococcus pneumoniae.

The Quellung reaction is used to diagnose

neonatal bacteremia, neonatal meningitis, and neonatal pneumonia

Streptococcus agalactiae is associated with which of the following diseases?

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSOPTION

Bacteria collected from a severely inflamed wound are sent to the lab for analysis. The results come back as follows: Gram-positive cocci in irregular clusters, kinase and coagulase positive, and able to grow in the presence of most antibiotics except vancomycin. The bacteria in the wound are most likely

Enterococcus.

During a stay in the hospital, an accident victim develops symptoms of bacteremia. A blood sample shows the presence of Gram-positive cocci in pairs. Lab tests determine that the bacteria are nonhemolytic and bile salt tolerant. The bacteremia is likely due to

Mycobacterium

Which of the following bacteria is a genus of high G + C Gram-positive bacteria?

Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Otitis media may lead to dangerous meningitis in children due to infection with

exfoliative toxin

Which of the following staphylococcal virulence factors produce the signs and symptoms of scalded skin syndrome?

It produces protein A, which inhibits opsonization.

Which of the following statements regarding Streptococcus pyogenes is FALSE?

they have hyaluronic acid capsules.

How do group A streptococci camouflage themselves from white blood cells?

viridans streptococci

Which of the following streptococci is associated with dental caries?

the presence of a polysaccharide capsule that protects it from digestion after endocytosis

What differentiates virulent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonvirulent strains?

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