first populist leader in India; believed that Indian nationalism should be grounded in the Hindu majority.
1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental Egyptian death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression which stimulated nationalist sentiment.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (1919)
increased national powers of Indian legislators and placed provincial administrations under ministries controlled by Indian-elected legislatures.
Rowlatt Act (1919)
placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights; undercut impact of the MontaguChelmsford reforms.
founded in 1906 to support demands of the Muslim peoples of India against the Hindu majority; gained separate electorates and legislative seats; divided the Indian nationalist movement.
governments entrusted to victorious European World War I nations over the colonies of the defeated powers.
Eastern European movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine.
Austrian Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; was indifferent to Arabs and promoted Jewish immigration into Palestine to form a Jewish state.
Atlantic Charter (1941)
British-American agreement; included a provision that recognized the right of all people to choose their form of government.
Land Freedom Army
African revolutionary movement for reform of Kenyan colonial system; began a conflict in 1952; called the Mau Mau by the British.
Afrikaner National Party
became the majority in the all-white South African legislature in 1948;