What does Nicholas sign and what date that promises constitutional reform ? (even though he was very reluctant)
October 17th, the October Manifesto
What did the October Manifesto promise ?
-Personal rights, freedom of speech, assembly and union
-Allow classes deprived of the franchise, participation in the Duma.
-No law can become effective without the approval of the state duma
What did the Bolsheviks say ? Why were they concerned ?
'We have been granted a constitution, yet autocracy remains. We have been granted everything, and yet we have been granted nothing.'
What were the problems of the October Manifesto ?
-Duma could offer advice but Tsar didn't have to accept it
-Duma not elected by universal suffrage and so did not represent the people.
-No promise of a 'constituent assembly'
What was introduced in April 23rd 1906
What did the Fundamental Laws entail ?
Tsar has supreme power and nothing can be done without his approval.
How did the Public react to the manifesto ?
The public were mostly optimistic at the beginning.
How did the Liberals react to the manifesto ?
Liberals were keen to work with the Tsar to make Duma's a success. These were known as 'Octoberists.'
How did Left wing liberals respond to the manifesto ?
No happy, so became cadets who continued to demand a constituent assembly.
Who wasn't happy about the Oct manifesto and so kept up strike activity ?
How did peasants in the countryside react to the Manifesto ?
Pesants continues to uprise, taking land by force.
By November 1905 how many of the empires largest cities were out of control ?
10 out of 19