Topic 9 Digestive System

Created by bogdansked 

Upgrade to
remove ads

For human biology 2012 RHS

Digestion

the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules

Absorption

the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion

Mucosa

cells lining the intestinal tract and responsible for absorption of nutrients

submucosa

layer superficial to the mucosa which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves

serosa

outer layer or convering of the alimentary canal, made of visceral peritoneum; its function is protection and secretion of serous fluid to reduce friction

Peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

know the three salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

chyme

Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.

gastric juice

a liquid that includes hydrochloric acid and pepsin and that is responsible for the chemical digestion of protein in the stomach

intestinal juice

fluid that intestinal glands secrete, containing digestive enzymes

mesentary

membrane extension of peritoneum that suspends intestines and provides blood and lymphatic vessels

pepsin

Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach

pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin

gastrin

hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice

lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

trypsin

an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine

peptidase

enzyme that breaks down specific peptide bonds

secretin

hormone produced on duodenum wall that stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralized acid in duodenum

emulsification

process in which bile breaks down fat

know the parts of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

lacteal

A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine

know the parts of the large intestine

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, cecum. appendix, ileocecal valve

know the functions of the large intestine

mucous production, absorb water, break down cellulose, produce Vit K, B12, thiamine, and riboflavin, produce fecal material

cirrhosis

chronic disease charaterized by degeneration of liver tissue most oftern caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

diverticulitis

A digestive disorder in which abnormal pouches form in the walls of the intestine and become inflamed. Inflammation of the small pouch-like sacs full of feces.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set