branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
nature/nurture, continuity/stages, stability/change
Three major issues of developmental psychology:
True or False: Just like men produce sperm throughout their lives, women produce eggs throughout their lives as well.
True or False: Life is sexually transmitted.
fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
developing human organism from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
HIV, smoke, alcohol
What are three examples of teratogens?
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants see things more frequently they begin to lose interest
Around what month are fetuses responsive to sound?
True or False: Immediately after birth, babies prefer their father's voice to their mother's.
transfer nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus and screens out potentially harmful substances
sucking, rooting, grasping, stepping, moro
What are the 5 neonate reflexes?
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relative uninfluenced by experience
process by which excess connections in the brain are shut down to strengthen others during puberty
What is the recommended position babies sleep in that has been linked to later crawling, but not later walking?
True or False: Genes play a major role in motor development.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
adapting our current understanding (schemas) to incorporate our new information
Piaget's stage from birth to about 2 years during which infants know the world around them mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
Piaget's stage from about 2 to 6-7 years or age during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Piaget's principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
curse of knowledge
people often overestimate the extent to which we share our opinions and perspectives with others, as we assume the something will be clear to others if it will be clear to us
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states-- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
concrete operational stage
Piaget's stage of cognitive development from 6-7 to 11 years during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
Piaget's stage of cognitive development that begins around age 20 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months
emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Harry and Margaret Harlow
Which psychologists at the University of Wisconsin used monkeys to discover that the babies preferred comfortable, cloth mothers over the hard, wire mothers that were feeding them?
True or False: Like the baby ducklings Konrad Lorenz experimented with, children also imprint.
True or False: For children, familiarity breeds content.
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
in mother's presence, children play comfortably and when she leaves they are distressed, seek comfort when she returns
children are less likely to explore their surroundings and cling to their mother, when she leave they cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure or return
True or False: Sensitive, responsive parents tend to have infants who exhibit secure attachment
True or False: Abuse tends to breed abuse
The release of which hormone is slowed in abused children who become aggressive teens and adults?
True or False: A major study found that children aged 4.5 to 6 who had spent the most time in day care had advanced thinking and language skills, but also an increased rate of aggression and defiance.
our understanding and evaluation of who we are
At about how many months do infants begin the self-recognition process?
parenting style in which parents impose rules and expect obedience, developed by Diana Baumrind
parenting style in which parents submit to their children's desires, developed by Diana Baumrind
parenting style in which parents are both demanding and responsive, developed by Diana Baumrind
transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
first menstrual period
before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self interest
by early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules
actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's rights or from self-defined basic ethical principles
What came up with the three basic levels of moral thinking? (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
the tingly, warm, glowing feeling in the chest when we see people display exceptional generosity, compassion, or courage
True or False: As our thinking matures, our behavior becomes more selfish and less caring
trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair
What are Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development?
trust vs. mistrust
If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
autonomy vs. shame
toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
initiative vs. guilt
preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent
industry vs. inferiority
children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
identity vs. role confusion
teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
intimacy vs. isolation
young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
generativity vs. stagnation
in middle age people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity vs. despair
reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
True or False: In industrialized cultures, adolescents are now taking less time to finish college, leave the nest, and establish careers
for some people a in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
What was the average, worldwide, life expectancy at birth in 2004?
Who is more prone to dying? Males or females?
chromosomes tips that wear down as we age
True or False: Recent study shows that more Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on the two days after Christmas and death rate increases after a person's birthday; known as death-deferral phenomenon
visual sharpness, distance perception, muscle strength and stamina, sense of smell and hearing
What abilities decline as we age?
True or False: As we age, body's disease-fighting immune system weakens, but we suffer fewer short-term ailments such as flu and cold because of accumulation of antibodies.
neural processing slows, atrophy of frontal lobes
What are two effects of aging on the brain?
loss of brain cells, deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine, plaques (globs of degenerating tissue), are signs of what disease?
study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tend to increase with age
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
cognitive decline typically accelerates as we near death
time of great struggle, regret, or even feeling struck down by life
culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
True or False: Adult moods are less extreme and more enduring than adolescent's
natural personality, little environmental influence
something that needs to occur or there will be a problem
readiness for learning, usually can be made up for
Which sense is most developed in the first month?
accomodation, assimilation, equilibration
What are the phases of creating schemas?
in schemas, all ideas blend and work together
things can be the same, object permanence; babies lack this
seeing the world from someone else's view
put things together and take them apart (math)
group things together and make sense of them
The stages of development are _________; not about how much we know or do, but how we think or describe the world
separation of self, object constancy, object concept, object permanence, cause and effect
What are some things infants learn in the first year?
What is the stage of 12-18 months when babies start testing out the world around them?
What is the stage of 18-24 months when babies actions are more creative and intentional?
crying, babbling, holophrases, telegraphic, vocab growth, rules or langugae
What are the stages of language?
egocentrism, parallel play, animism, mental play
What activities of preoperational thinking are 2 to 4 year olds likely to exhibit?
opposites, classifications, decentering
What are some things 4-6 year olds exhibit during preoperational thinking?
conservation, seriation, reversibility, concrete representation, inductive logic
What are some trademarks of concrete operations as seen in 6-12 year olds?
generate ideas, hypothetical propositions, abstract thought, deductive reasoning, perspective taking
What are trademarks of formal operations adolescents use?
Who presented the idea of adolescent egocentrism?
adolescent belief that they are completely unique and no one has ever experienced what they are going through
adolescent belief that everyone is watching and judging them all the time
Which brain system dominates during adolescence?
At what stage do we reach our peak in terms of mental faculties?
Erik Erikson, a Montessori teacher, studied with which scientist as he created his psychosocial development theory?
In Erikson's psychosocial development theory, _________ develops as each conflict is resolved and the individual progresses.
In Erikson's theory, if one is overwhelmed by the current stage, they might revert to a prior stage. This is known as _________.
sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy, formed in infancy; developed by Erikson
At what age do infants give their first "social smile?"
At what age do infants show fear?
activities they do
How do kids define themselves at ages 6-12?
What advantages do early developing boys have?
True or False: Early developing girls are often given more responsibility and are sexualized.
athletics, friendships, outgoing
What are advantages to late development in girls?
storm and stress
sturm und drang; description of adolescence
identity achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, identity diffusion
What are James Marcia's four identity statuses?
period of conscious decision making and commitment to a personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs
make choices and express commitment to them; autonomous and self-motivated
adopts choices of others without exploring choices; usually have over involved parents
resist parent's authority; tries to make choices and is exploring options but has yet to commit
not considering options and avoiding commitments; most troublesome state
building a workable life
According to Gould, what issue are people in the 22-28 year old age group facing?
crisis of questions
According to Gould, what issue are people in the 30-34 year old age group facing?
True or False: There is no major crisis stage in adulthood, just a re-thinking.
discriminating against aging
Heinz and the Drug
What is an example of a story researchers use to explore a person's moral development?