a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception
second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the 2nd month
the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth
fetal alcohol syndrome
a collection of inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
the head to foot direction of motor development
ex: the brain develops before the legs (anything in the lower body)
the center-outward direction of motor development
inside-out- your core, heart, lungs develop before your extremities
development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blue print
the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure.
-when children learn new words
when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
example- child calls anything round a "ball" they don't distinguish properly
when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to
-narrow down objects or actions too much. example: kid is used to seeing giant dog and when it sees a chiwawa it doesn't recognize it as a dog
content words; articles, prepositionsm and other less critical words are omitted.
ex: "Give doll" rather than "Please give me the doll"
close emotional bond between infants and caregivers
emotional distress that occurs when an infant is separated from the person they created the bond with
when a baby is separated from mother it gets upset but it knows that she will return and gets happy when she does
baby cries, gets upset, and then when the parent comes it wants to be with the mom, but it stays away and the baby is constantly upset throughout the whole time period
baby doesn't care if parents are there, doesn't go back to them, it seems like the baby was neglected
operant conditioning (cognitive)
based on punishment and rewards. Based on how what you get, it determines whether you get punished or rewarded and it'll make you either behave that way again or not.
classical conditioning (more reaction than cognitive)
things you associate because of repitition. you're not aware of it. example: dog and bell experiment. it's like having a cue because you associate 2 things