TBPQ2

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Quiz 2

Pharmacology

Which of the following arteries is most appropriate for measuring the pulse of a patient with very low blood pressure

Femoral artery

The diastolic blood pressure is a reflection of

Pressure exerted during left ventricular relaxation

What is an important reason to monitor the heart rate in patients with lung disease

Tachycardia is a common finding when hypoxemia is present

An alternating succession of strong and weak pulses that usually is not related to respiratory disease is known as pulsus

Alternans

Assessing the patient's level of consciousness is important because it

Evaluates the adequacy of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation

Which of the following statements best reflects the importance of comparing changes in vital signs

It allows recognition of the development of a particular problem

If dehydration is suspected in a patient, which of the following parameters should be monitored often

Fluid intake and output

Fever is defined as an

Elevation of body temperature above normal because of disease

Which of the following is not classified as a classic vital sign

Sensorium

Which of the following statements regarding vital signs is most accurate

Vital signs trends are far more important than a single measurement.

Which of the following is not a cause of hypotension

Right heart failure

The normal pulse rate for adults is _____ beats/min

60 to 100

Which of the following scales is the gold standard for assessing trends in the neurological function of patients who have suffered head trauma

Glasgow

The patient's general clinical presentation indicates to the respiratory therapist that the patient is in distress. The respiratory therapists first step should be to

Evaluate the problem quickly and intervene or locate someone to assist the patient

When vital signs are compared with other signs and symptoms to arrive at a conclusion about what is wrong with the patient, this is known as the

Differential diagnosis

A respiratory rate of greater than ____ breaths/min is considered abnormal at any age

60

For every 1 C elevation in body temperature, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production increase by approximately ____%

10

A well-written description of a respiratory therapist's initial observations is beneficial to other healthcare providers because it

Helps them know how to plan care and relate to patient's needs

Which of the following characteristics should be included in the assessment of a patient's pulse

Rate, rhythm, and strength

Which of the following statements is not true about vesicular or normal breath sounds

They are produced when air enters the alveoli

What breathing pattern is associated with fatigue of the diaphragm

Abdominal paradox

Which of the following factors most closely relates to the pitch of a wheeze

The degree of airway compression

What is the common cause of hepatomegaly

Chronic right heart failure

Which of the following is most likely to cause tracheal deviation

Right upper lobe pneumothorax

What disorder is associated with a barrel chest

Emphysema

What disease is most likely to cause a prolonged expiratory time

Asthma

Which of the following is a sign of more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Significant use of accessory muscles at rest

What adventitious breath sounds is most likely to be heard in the patient with croup

Stridor

What problem is associated with nasal flaring

Increased work of breathing

Which of the following is the most common cause of jugular venous disease

Right heart failure

What clinical disorder will cause a unilateral decrease in thoracic expansion

Lobar pneumonia

In patients with severe COPD and hyperinflation, the low, flat diaphragm causes inward movement of the lateral chest walls with inspiration. What is this called

Hoover's sign

Which of the following adventitious lung sounds is related most closely to a life-threatening problem

Stridor

Digital clubbing is associated with

Cystic fibrosis, COPD, bronchogenic carcinoma (all of the above)

What clinical condition is associated with the onset of pedal edema

Right heart failure

Which of the following physical examination findings is associated with myasthenia gravis

Ptosis

What clinical disorder will cause decreased resonance to percussion

Pneumonia

Normal capillary refill is less than ____ second(s)

3

What term describes the sinking inward of the skin overlying the rib cage with each inspiratory effort

Retractions

What problem is associated with cyanosis of the oral mucosa

Reduced arterial oxygenation

What term is used to describe an abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

Ascites

The horizontal fissure that separates the right upper lobe from the right middle lobe begins at what rib in the midsternal line

Rib 4

What clinical condition is associated with central cyanosis

Respiratory failure

What change in the heart sounds is associated with cor pulmonale

Loud P2

The listing of a drug and the amount of drug are found in which part of a prescription

Inscription

To find official information about drugs (according to the FDA), you need to go to the

United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF)

Which of the following classes of drug can be aerosolized? I. Antiasthmatic agents II. Adrenergic agents III. Antiinfective agents IV. Mucoactive agents V. Corticosteroids

I, II, III, IV, and V

Drugs can be obtained from which of the following sources

Plants, animals, and minerals

If a drug is ordered with the Latin abbreviation qid, it should be administered

Four times daily

Toxicology studies as well as the effects of a new drug on such organs as the liver and kidneys occur during which step of the drug approval process in the United States

Animal studies

The brand name given to a drug by a particular manufacturer is known as the drug's

Trade name

If a physician desires a drug to be administered as needed, he or she should use which of the following abbreviations

Prn

The advantages of delivering drugs by oral or nasal inhalation include which of the following? I. Aerosol doses are smaller than those administered systemically II. Side effects are usually fewer and severe III. The onset of action is rapid IV. The delivery process is painless, relatively safe, and usually more convenient

I, II, III, and IV

To be sold over-the-counter, a product must be shown to pose virtually no hazard to the consumer

False

The study of drugs, including their origin, properties, and interactions with living organisms, is known as

Pharmacology

Which of the following drug groups are important to respiratory and critical care, although they may not be available in an aerosol form? I. Diuretics II. Antiarrhtymic agents III. Neuromuscular blocking agents IV. Anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents

I, II, III, and IV

A drug's portal entry into the body is known as its

Route of administration

Two different drugs (each with its own mechanism of action) are administered to a patient in an attempt to relieve bronchoconstriction. The ordering physician hopes that the effect of the drug pair will be greater than the sum of the separate effects of each individual drug. If successful, this will be an example of

Synergism

The drug albuterol binds to its corresponding receptor in order to initiate its intended response of bronchodilation. By definition, albuterol is known as a

Agonist

The principal organ for drug metabolism is the

Liver

The proportion of a drug available from the lung, out of total systemically available drug, is known as the

L/T ratio

The relationship between a drug's chemical structure and its clinical activity is known as its

Structure-activity relation

Approximately what percentage of an inhaled aerosol reaches the lower respiratory tract with current delivery devices

10% to 30%

Which of the following factors can increase the lung availability/total systemic availability ratio of inhaled drugs? I. Efficient delivery devices II. Inhaled drugs with a high first-pass metabolism rate III. Mouthwashing IV. Use of a reservoir device

I, II, III, and IV

During which phase of a drug action is a drug made available to the body

Administration

The drug methacholine can stimulate parasympathetic receptors in the airways, causing bronchoconstriction. Epinephrine can stimulate B2 receptors in the airways, causing bronchodilation. These two opposing effects that cancel each other are an example of

Functional antagonism

Inhaled aerosols may have which type(s) of intended effect(s) on the body? I. Entered II. Local III. Systemic IV. Oral

II and III only

Which of the following factors may have an effect on drug absorption? I. Route of administration II. Metabolic degradation III. Inactivation by stomach acids IV. Blood flow to absorption site

I, II, III, and IV

Which of the four major body compartments contains the smallest average volume in liters

Vascular space

Which of the following organs is considered the primary site of drug excretion

Kidney

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