Near V. Minnesota
New York Times v. United States
New York Times won
Zenger v. Governor of New York City
Actual Malice was added to Libel
Best defense for Libel is truth
Must prove the following:
Only two people have to see it to be considered published
Person that is being "attacked" must be clearly identified either by name, title or other ways
Proof that money was lost, reputation was stained etc...
Was added to prove libel in the Zenger case when involving a public figure. Must prove
Two-Step Flow Theory
1. Opinion leaders receive information from the media they then draw conclusions and 2. tell society what they received with their own opinions.
Selective Exposure Theory
We select media that aligns with our opinions.
Is part of the Selective Exposure Theory where we resist media that is against our beliefs.
We perceive media through what our opinions are
We don't remember the information that isn't important to us.
Media Effects Actions Theory
Powerful- immediate effects on actions
Cumulative- Over time it effects our actions
Moderate- Not that much right away but does have some effects on our actions
Minimal- Little effects
Propaganda, Social Learning Theory, Payne Fund (T.V.), War of the Worlds
Spiral of Silence, Cultivation Theory
Uses and Gratification Theory, Agenda-Setting Theory, Framing, Priming
1. Audience interaction
2. Change a belief
3. Modify an attitude that makes a belief
Functions of Public Relations
Research - survey
Convey a message - VNR, PSA
Government Relations/Lobbying Gas Company
1.Special events- grand opening
2. Pseudo events- Fashion Show (fake)
Consumer or Community Relations- preven backlash
Crisis Management or Control
Theories of Public Relations
Agenda-Setting Theory- The media tells you what to think about not what to think
Priming- Can't see the whole scope a lot of messages. Fill the gaps and make it flood.
Framing- Type of language you use, Helps you think a certain way.
Ways Social Media changes Theories
Choice- More choice to get word and get word out
Conversation- more options to talk, reputation made/lost
Curation-stays on forever
Creation- Pro users. Possibility to create media. shortening time
Collaboration- Try products and blog about it.
Logical Appeal- Head, Statistics and facts
Emotional Appeal- Heart, Feeling, subconscious
New York Times v. Sullivan
Advertisement about civil rights