What kind of control mechanism is indicated when increased blood glucose levels stimulate increased secretion of insulin?
Negative feedback control
What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?
Choose the statement that applies to Type I diabetes mellitus
Onset often occurs during childhood
Why does polyuria develop with diabetes mellitus?
What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?
increased catabolism of fats and proteins
What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?
Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?
Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?
staggering gait, disorientation, confusion
Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?
deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor
Which of the following indicates compensated acidosis in the diabetic?
serum pH of 7.35
What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?
acidosis and hypovolemia
Which of the followind does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes? The following does develop complications
- peripheral neuropathy
How do many oral hypoglycemic drugs act?
to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin
Visual impairment may develop in diabetics, primarily because of:
abnormal metabolism in the lens
Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography?
- It is related to elevated serum lipids.
- It leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease.
Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?
necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs
How do the differenT types of available insulin vary?
- time until onset of action
- time until peak effect
- duration of effect
- source of insulin
Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?
Type I diabetics
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addison's disease?
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?
deficit of T3 and T4
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?
deficit of ADH
What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?
What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism?
- skeletal muscle twitching or spasm
- weak cardiac contraction
Which of the following applies to acromegaly?
It results from excessive secretion of GH
Which of the following may cause goiter?
- lack of iodine in the diet
Which signs are typical of Graves' disease?
exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness
page 564, table 25-5
Characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:
The following are included
- heavy body and round face
- atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs
- atrophy of the lymph nodes
STARING EYES WITH INFREQUENT BLINKING
Why does diabetes insipidus cause polyuria?
There is a deficit of ADH
Which of the following is and effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?
decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
Which of the following is an effect of Addison's disease?
poor stress response
What is the most common cause of type I diabetes mellitus?
destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction
Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?
the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit
Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma?
- persistent headaches
Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome? The following apply are:
- the cause is excess ADH secretion
- Severe hyponatremia results
- Fluid retention increases
EXCESSIVE SODIUM IS RETAINED
What is /are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?
hyperthermia and heart failure
What is the recommended treatment for insulin shock if the patient remains conscious?
oral administration of concentrated glucose
Which of the following conditions may precipiate or exacerbate hyperglycemia?
Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?
Which characteristic of hypersmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) differentiates it from diabetic ketoacidosis?
Ketonuria is not present
Which of the following is recommended for immediate treatment of hypoglycemic shock?
- if conscious, immediately give sweet fruit juice, honey, candy, or sugar
- if unconscious, give nothing by mouth (require intravenous glucose 50%)
All these tissues use glucose without the aid of insulin EXCEPT:
The following use glucos w/o the aid of insulin
- digestive system
- exercising skeletal muscle
Differences between Type I and Type II diabetes include:
Type I diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and Type II diabetes occurs more often in adults
Complications of diabetes mellitus include:
- perpheral neuropathy
- frequent infections
Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?
radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area
Dwarfism is caused by:
a deficit of somatotropin (GH)
Which of the following results from a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:
Great Lakes or mountainous regions
Which of the following is caused by Graves' disease?
increased metabolic rate
Which diagnostic test is useful in determining if a pituitary dysfunction is causing a thyroid disorder?
serum TSH levels
Severe impairment of all aspects of growth and development, including difficulty feeding, mental retardation, and stunted skeletal growth are associated with:
A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:
The anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following hormones EXCEPT:
The following is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland:
- prolactain (PRL)
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- growth hormone (GH)
- antidiuretic hormone
Which of the following applies to oxytocin?
- It stimulate contraction of the uterus after delivery
- It stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation.
Which of the following is a major function of the hormone norepinephrine?
visceral and cutanious vasoconstriction
Early signs of hyperglycemia include polyphagia, which means:
Which of the following hormones is involved in both the stress response and the anti-inflammatory response?
polydipsia occurs with diabetes mellitus when:
polyuria causes dehydration
Trophic hormones include:
Metabolic syndrome is marked by:
abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism
Compensation mechanisms occurring in the early stage of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
Which of the following may occur with a pituitary adenoma?
headache and seizures
Which of the follwoing may cause hypertension?
Catabolic effects of Cushing's sydrome include:
Blood glucose levels are increased by:
Which of the following are likely present in a patient immobilized for a long period of time?
hypercalcemia and low serum PTH levels
Which of the following may cause high serum levels of parathyroid hormone?
chronic renal failure
Diabetic retinopathy results from:
obstruction or rupture of retinal blood vessels
Why does hypocalcemia cause tetany?
Nerves to skeletal muscle are more excitable