Chapter 25

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Endocrine Disorders

What kind of control mechanism is indicated when increased blood glucose levels stimulate increased secretion of insulin?

Negative feedback control
page 546

What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?

benign tumor
page 549

Choose the statement that applies to Type I diabetes mellitus

Onset often occurs during childhood
page 549

Why does polyuria develop with diabetes mellitus?

glucosuria develops
page 550

What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?

increased catabolism of fats and proteins
page 551

What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?

serious infection
pge 553

Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?

recurrent vomiting
page 552

Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?

staggering gait, disorientation, confusion
page 552

Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?

deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor
page 554

Which of the following indicates compensated acidosis in the diabetic?

serum pH of 7.35

What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?

acidosis and hypovolemia

Which of the followind does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes? The following does develop complications
- nephropathy
- impotence
- peripheral neuropathy

OSTEOPOROSIS
page 555

How do many oral hypoglycemic drugs act?

to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin
page 552

Visual impairment may develop in diabetics, primarily because of:

abnormal metabolism in the lens
page 556

Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography?

- It is related to elevated serum lipids.
- It leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease.

Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?

necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs
page 556

How do the differenT types of available insulin vary?

- time until onset of action
- time until peak effect
- duration of effect
- source of insulin
page 552

Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?

Type I diabetics
page 552

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addison's disease?

decreased glucocorticoids
page 567

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?

deficit of T3 and T4
page 564

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?

deficit of ADH
page 563

What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?

bone demineralization
page 559

What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism?

- skeletal muscle twitching or spasm
- weak cardiac contraction
page 558

Which of the following applies to acromegaly?

It results from excessive secretion of GH
page 562

Which of the following may cause goiter?

- hyperthyroidism
- hypothyroidism
- lack of iodine in the diet

Which signs are typical of Graves' disease?

exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness
page 564, table 25-5

Characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:
The following are included
- heavy body and round face
- atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs
- atrophy of the lymph nodes

STARING EYES WITH INFREQUENT BLINKING
page 566

Why does diabetes insipidus cause polyuria?

There is a deficit of ADH
page 563

Which of the following is and effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?

decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland

Which of the following is an effect of Addison's disease?

poor stress response
page 567

What is the most common cause of type I diabetes mellitus?

destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction

Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?

the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit

Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma?

- persistent headaches
- hemianopia

Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome? The following apply are:
- the cause is excess ADH secretion
- Severe hyponatremia results
- Fluid retention increases

EXCESSIVE SODIUM IS RETAINED

What is /are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?

hyperthermia and heart failure

What is the recommended treatment for insulin shock if the patient remains conscious?

oral administration of concentrated glucose

Which of the following conditions may precipiate or exacerbate hyperglycemia?

Cushing's disease

Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?

Cushing's disease

Which characteristic of hypersmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) differentiates it from diabetic ketoacidosis?

Ketonuria is not present

Which of the following is recommended for immediate treatment of hypoglycemic shock?

- if conscious, immediately give sweet fruit juice, honey, candy, or sugar
- if unconscious, give nothing by mouth (require intravenous glucose 50%)

All these tissues use glucose without the aid of insulin EXCEPT:
The following use glucos w/o the aid of insulin
- digestive system
- exercising skeletal muscle
- brain

LIVER

Differences between Type I and Type II diabetes include:

Type I diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and Type II diabetes occurs more often in adults

Complications of diabetes mellitus include:

- perpheral neuropathy
- frequent infections
- cataracts

Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?

radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area

Dwarfism is caused by:

a deficit of somatotropin (GH)

Which of the following results from a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

diabetes insipidus

Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:

Great Lakes or mountainous regions

Which of the following is caused by Graves' disease?

increased metabolic rate

Which diagnostic test is useful in determining if a pituitary dysfunction is causing a thyroid disorder?

serum TSH levels

Severe impairment of all aspects of growth and development, including difficulty feeding, mental retardation, and stunted skeletal growth are associated with:

cretinism

A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:

pheochromocytoma

The anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following hormones EXCEPT:
The following is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland:
- prolactain (PRL)
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- growth hormone (GH)
- antidiuretic hormone

GLUCAGON

Which of the following applies to oxytocin?

- It stimulate contraction of the uterus after delivery
- It stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation.

Which of the following is a major function of the hormone norepinephrine?

visceral and cutanious vasoconstriction

Early signs of hyperglycemia include polyphagia, which means:

hunger

Which of the following hormones is involved in both the stress response and the anti-inflammatory response?

cortisol

polydipsia occurs with diabetes mellitus when:

polyuria causes dehydration

Trophic hormones include:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

Metabolic syndrome is marked by:

abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism

Compensation mechanisms occurring in the early stage of diabetic ketoacidosis include:

Kussmaul's respirations

Which of the following may occur with a pituitary adenoma?

headache and seizures

Which of the follwoing may cause hypertension?

pheochromocytoma

Catabolic effects of Cushing's sydrome include:

osteoporosis

Blood glucose levels are increased by:

- glucocorticoids
- glucagon
- epinephrine

Which of the following are likely present in a patient immobilized for a long period of time?

hypercalcemia and low serum PTH levels

Which of the following may cause high serum levels of parathyroid hormone?

chronic renal failure

Diabetic retinopathy results from:

obstruction or rupture of retinal blood vessels

Why does hypocalcemia cause tetany?

Nerves to skeletal muscle are more excitable

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