Name of flattened sacs which make up the membrane of the ER.
also known as cisternal space, interior of ER membrane.
Organelle associated with drug detoxification.
The process of adding a hydroxyl group to a non-polar molecule so that it becomes more soluble in water and is excreted from the organism. (Smooth ER)
Main enzyme of glucose metabolism found in smooth ER.
Organ used for glucose regulation and storage as glycogen.
Organelle specialized for Ca 2+ storage in muscle cells.
Continuous with outer nuclear membrane.
Organelle associated with carbohydrate metabolism.
Section of ER used in calcium storage.
Organelle associated with protein synthesis.
Protein in rough ER used for co-translation of proteins into the cisternal space(lumen).
Signal peptide sequence
Protein sequence which labels proteins for import into ER
Stop transfer sequence
Protein sequence which labels proteins for integration into membrane.
Enzyme which cleaves signal peptide sequence from polypeptide chain as it enters the lumen.
Site of co-translational and post-translational modifications.
Protein disulfide isomerase
Enzyme which catalyzes the formation and breakdown of disulfide bonds.
Site of protein folding.
Size of small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit.
Size of large eukaryotic ribosomal subunit.
Size of small prokaryotic ribosomal subunit.
Size of large prokaryotic ribosomal subunit.
Size of eukaryotic ribosome.
Size of prokaryotic ribosome.
Site of tRNA arrival in ribosomes, also known as A site.
Site of peptide bond formation in ribosomes, also known as P site.
Site where tRNA leaves the ribosome.
mRNA binding site
Site where mRNA binds to ribosome.
A tRNA with it's attached amino acid.
Three nucleotide sequence complementary to a codon in tRNA.
Who proposed the wobble hypothesis.
Unusual nucleotide found more commonly in tRNA which can pair with U, C, and A.
Enzyme used to link the proper amino acid to the proper tRNA.
Segment of mRNA not translated found before the start codon.
Segment of mRNA not translated found after the stop codon.
Adjective used to describe mRNA which can code for several proteins, found in Prokaryotes.
5' to 3'
Direction ribosome travels on mRNA.
First step of protein synthesis where ribosome binds to mRNA.
Second step of protein synthesis where amino acids are added to a growing polypeptide chain.
Third step of protein synthesis where polypeptide and mRNA are released from the ribosome.
IF1, IF2, and IF3 bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and GTP binds to IF2. (Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic translation)
mRNA and tRNA-Methionine bind to 30S ribosomal subunuit IF1 and IF3 are released.(Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic protein synthesis.)
Name of 3-9 purine nucleotides found upstream of start codon in mRNA. This sequence binds part of the 30S ribosomal subunit that has a pyrimidine rich rRNA segment.
First amino acid integrated into prokaryotic polypeptides.
GTP hydrolysis joins the 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. IF2 is released and translation begins.(Enter numerical order of this step in prokaryotic protein synthesis.)
40S ribosomal subunit is complexed with eIF3 and eIF1A. eIF2-GTP binds with tRNA-met and binds to 40S subunit. This complex then binds to 5' end of mRNA.(Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
eIF4 disassembles secondary structure found at the capped 5' end of the mRNA. This finalizes the 40S initiation complex. (Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
The 40S initiation complex slides along the mRNA until the Kozak sequence and start codon are found. There the 60S ribosomal subunit joins and translation begins.(Enter numerical order of this step in eukaryotic protein synthesis.)
5'-ACCAUGG-3' Name of this sequence which 40S initiation complex searches for to bind 60S ribosomal subunit and begin translation.
Elongation factor needed to transport aminoacyl tRNA to A site of ribosome in prokaryotes. Carries two GTP molecules.
Molecule in ribosome responsible for what was mistaken as peptidyl transferase activity.
Name of enzyme which is made entirely out of RNA.
Elongation factor needed for translocation of tRNA from sites A and P to sites E and P in prokayrotes, bound to GTP.
Type of reaction which occurs when a release factor terminates eukaryotic protein synthesis.
Other name for heat shock protein 70(Hsp70)
Heat shock proteins
Class of molecular chaperones which assist in folding proteins into the correct conformation or refolding misfolded proteins.
The molecule which mutated or misfolded proteins are tagged with for degradation in the cytoplasm after they are deglycosylated.
The process of degrading a misfolded protien after tagging it with ubiquitin.
Aggregates of misfolded proteins can sometimes form which could lead to.
Name of polymerized protein which forms intracellular tangles in alzheimer's disease.
Name of replicating misfolded proteins.
A mutation which changes an amino acid coding codon to a stop codon.
Removal of segments of a polypeptide in post-translational modification.
Name of removed segment from a spliced protein.
Name of segments of polypeptide chains which are spliced together.
Process of polypeptide synthesis into the Rough ER.
Signal recognition particle
Protein which binds to signal peptide, ribosome, and receptor on ER. Protein blocks translation of mRNA until docked at rough ER.
Molecular chaperone of the rough ER which binds to hydrophobic regions of unfolded polypeptide to stabilize molecule.
Name of protein sequence which targets proteins to ER related organelles.
Name of the addition or modification of sugar side-chains to newly folded proteins in the rough ER.
Type of core found in sugar molecules added to proteins.
Where soluble proteins produced in the Rough ER are sent.
Start transfer sequence
Protein sequence which is bound by the signal recognition particle to be sent for another pass through the membrane.
Protein sequence which targets proteins to peroxisomes.
Sequence used to target polypeptides to the chloroplast and mitochondria.
How many compartments are found in mitochondria?(Enter a number)
How many compartments are found in chloroplasts.(Enter a number)
The addition of a specific oligosaccharide to asparagine as part of post translational modification.
The addition of a specific oligosaccharide to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine as part of post translational modification.