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What are the 8 effects of insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance causes 1. visceral obesity 2. atherosclerosis 3. systemic inflammation 4. endothelial dysfunction 5. complex dyslipidemia 6. disordered fibrinolysis 7. hypertension 8. Type 2 Diabetes

What are 4 hormones created by adipose tissue?

Resistin, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha

Where are the 3 places where carbohydrates are found?

Carbohydrates are found in the blood glucose, liver glycogen, and muscles

What is glycogenolysis?

glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose

What is glycolysis?

glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate and lactate

What is gluconeogenseis?

gluconeogenesis is the creation of glucose from pyruvate or lactate in the liver

What is glycogenesis?

Gycogenesis is the creation of glycogen from glucose in the liver

How many ATPs does glycolysis produce?

Glycolysis produces net 2 ATP

What is hexokinase?

Hexokinase converts glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This requires ATP

What is phosphofructokinase?

Phosphofructokinase converts Fructose-6-phosphate into Fructose-1,6-biphosphate. This requires ATP

What is pyruvate kinase?

Pyruvate kinase converts phosphoenolpyruvic acid into pyruvic acid which creates 2 ATPs

What happens to pyruvate if there is an oxygen shortage?

Pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid so that NAD+ will be available for more glycolysis

What happens to lactic acid?

Lactic acid leaves cell and enters the blood stream. It is taken up by the liver and converted back to pyruvate

What percent of glucose does the brain use?

The brain uses 70% of glucose

What is the normal blood glucose level?

90mg/100ml is the normal blood glucose level

What happens when your body has a low blood glucose level?

Low blood glucose level stimulates the alpha cells of pancreas to produce and release glucagon into the blood stream. Glucagon stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose. Blood glucose levels rise.

What happens when your body has a high blood glucose level?

High blood glucose level stimulates the beta islet cells of the pancreas to produce and release insulin into the blood stream. Insulin stimulates cells to take up glucose and stimulates the liver to create glycogen from glucose. Blood glucose levels will lower.

How does somatostatin influence insulin and glucagon?

Somatostatin inhibits glucagon production

Which ANS system stimulates insulin

Insulin secretion is stimulated by the parasympathetic nervous system

Which ANS system stimulates glucagon

Glucagon secretion is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system

What are the insulin stimulators?

Increased glucose, increased free amino acids, increased GI hormones including gastrin, secretin, CCK, GIP, GLP-1, increased glucagon, noreadrenaline on alpha adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine

What are the insulin inhibitors?

Decreased glucose, increased somatostatin, adrenaline and noreadrenaline on beta adrenergic receptors

What is the effect of insulin on most cells?

Insulin causes protein synthesis in most cells resulting in decreased free amino acids

What is the effect of insulin on the brain

Insulin has no effect on the brain

What is the effect of insulin on muscle?

Insulin causes the muscle to uptake glucose and synthesize glycogen

What is the effect of insulin on liver

Insulin causes the liver to uptake glucose, make glycogen, synthesize fatty acids and decrease glucose synthesis

What is the effect of insulin on adipose tissue

Insulin causes adipose tissue to take up glucose and create glycogen, decrease triglyceride breakdown and increase triglyceride synthesis

What is the glucose transporter in erythrocytes?

GLUT1 is the glucose transporter in erythrocytes

What is the glucose transporter in the brain?

GLUT3 is the glucose transporter in the brain

What is the glucose transporter in the liver and pancreatic beta cells?

GLUT 2 is the glucose transporter in the liver and pancreatic beta cells

What is the insulin sensitive glucose transporter and where is it found/what does it do?

GLUT4 is the insulin sensitive glucose transporter. It is found on muscle and adipose tissue

How many ATP do red blood cells make?

red blood cells make only 2 ATP per glucose molecule bc they have no mitochondria

What two types of cells can make glycogen?

Muscle and Liver

What cell can do both gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycolysis?

The liver can perform gluconeogenesis glycolysis glycogenolysis and glycogenesis

What is the first irreversible step of gluconeogenesis?

Conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate by pyruvate carboxylase in the mitochondria

What is the second irreversible step of gluconeogenesis?

Oxaloacetate is converted into phosphoenolpyruvic acid by PEP carboxykinase

Where is PEPCK made?

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is made in the liver in response to low glucose levels

What 4 things affect PEPCK transcription?

Insulin, glucocorticoids, glucagon and thyroid hormone

What 3 enzymes are needed for glycogen breakdown to glucose?

Glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, phosphoglucomutase

How do glucagon and epinephrine affect glycogen synthase?

Glucagon and epinephrine activate protein kinase A which phosphorylates glycogen synthase inactivating it.

How do glucagon and epinephrine affect glycogen phosphorylase?

Glucagon and epinephrine activate protein kinase A which activates phosphorylase kinase which phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase activating it

How does insulin affect glycogen synthase?

Insulin activates protein phosphatase-1 which dephosphorylates glycogen synthase activating it

How does insulin affect glycogen phosphorylase?

Insulin activates protein phosphatase-1 which dephosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase, inhibiting it

What is Von Gierke's disease?

Von Gierke Disease is a Glucose 6 phosphate defect. This results in incomplete gluconeogenesis and subsequently hypoglycemia

What is McArdle's Disease?

McArdle Disease is a skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase defect. This results in an inability to breakdown glycogen into glucose in skeletal muscles

What is Hers Disease?

Hers disease is a liver glycogen phosphorylase defect. This results in an inability to breakdown glycogen into glucose in the liver.

What is the result of insulin deficiency?

Insulin deficiency results in hyperglycemia due to too much glucose in the blood stream, increased lipolysis and acidosis as there is not enough glycogen storage, dehydration, polydipsia, hypovolemia,

What are the medical complications to insulin deficiency?

Neuropathy, microangiopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, foot ischemia, athersclerosis,

What are AGEs?

AGEs are advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are markedly increased in diabetes because of the excess in glucose availability

What is RAGE?

RAGE are the receptors for advanced glycation end products. When AGEs bind to RAGE, this contributes to many age and diabetes related diseases including atherosclerosis, arthritis, asthma, etc

What are the effects of protein glycosylation?

Protein glycoslyation can change the charge of the protein, change 3d structure of the protein, lead to cross-linking of peptide chains, and change function

What causes Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

T cell mediated destruction of beta islet cells of pancreas

What is DPP-4?

DPP-4 inhibits activation of GLP-1. Inhibition of DPP-4 increases GLP-1 activation resulting in insulin production which improves islet function

What is PPAR-gamma?

PPAR-gamma is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). It regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism

What is the PPAR-gamma paradox?

Inhibiting PPAR-gamma leads to type 2 diabetes, but inhibiting PPAR-gamma also leads to increased sensitivity to insulin

What are thiazolidinediones?

Thiazolidinediones are a therapy for Type 2 Diabetes. Targets insulin resistance without causing hypoglycemia. Preserves beta cell function and improves cardiovascular outcomes

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