Sociology Unit 2

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Henslin chapter 6-10

[Chapter 6] For a deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it?

It must be a rule written into a law

Which concept of culture is credited with making social life possible and behavior predictable?

Norms

What is the term for all of a group's customary social arrangements that provide predictability in life and which depend on the enforcement of norms?

Social Order

What concept refers to the formal and informal means of enforcing norms?

Social Control

What is the major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance?

Sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, while psychological explanations look for answers within the individual

Which personal characteristic of an individual would a sociologist be most likely to address when trying to determine the cause of an individual's deviant behavior?

Their social class

Based on his theory about how we learn to either conform or deviate, what would Edwin Sutherland consider as the underlying cause of deviance?

Group association

Based on control theory, when are inner controls most effective?

When we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society

Which theory of deviance places significance on names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior?

Labeling theory

Which technique of neutralization is reflected by the comment, "Who are you to talk?"

Condemnation of the condemner

Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the following was not one of them?

One deviant act leads to another, which increases social solidarity

Based on Merton's strain theory, what is the most common reaction to cultural goals and the institutionalized means to meet them?

Conformity

What is the major difference between white collar crime and street crime?

White collar crime is an act committed in the course of a legitimate occupation, street crime is not

Which sociological perspective is inclined to view the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions?

Conflict perspective

What is the approximate number of prisoners and jail inmates in the United States today?

Over 2 million

The crime with the highest recidivism rate is ________ and the crime with the lowest recidivism rate is ________

Stealing cars; murder

Who is the psychiatrist who denounced the medicalization of deviance and proclaimed "mental illnesses are neither mental nor illnesses....they are problem behaviors"?

Thomas Szasz

Who was the European sociologist who pointed out that deviance was inevitable and that it would exist even in a group of saints?

Emile Durkheim

For an act to be classified as deviant, it must have disgusting and annoying qualities setting it apart from normal behavior; True or False?

False

The relativity of deviance is illustrated by the phrase, "it is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant." True or False?

True

Capital Punishment

The death penalty

Control Theory

The idea that two control systems-- Inner controls and outer controls-- work against our tendencies to deviate

Crime

The violation of norms written into law

Criminal Justice System

The system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime

Cultural Goals

The legitimate objectives held out to the members of a society

Deviance

The violation of rules or norms

Differential Association

Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an "excess of definitions" of deviance and by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant

Genetic Predisposition

You may be predisposed to crime by having a low intelligence, the "XYY" theory, and body type

Hate Crime

Crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred (dislike, animosity) of someone's race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin

Illegitimate Opportunity Structure

Opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life

Institutionalized Means

Approved ways of reaching cultural goals

Labeling Theory

The view, developed by symbolic interactionists, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity

Medicalization of Deviance

To make some deviance a medical matter, making it seems like it's a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians

Negative Sanction

An expression of disapproval from breaking a norm; ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a more formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution

Personality Disorders

The view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms

Positive Sanction

A reward given fro following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize

Recidivism Rate

The proportion of people who are rearrested

Social Control

A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms

Social Order

A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives

Stigma

"Blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity

Strain Theory

Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many the approved means to reach that goal; one adaptation is crime, the choice of an innovative but illegitimate means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal

Street Crime

Crimes such as mugging, rape and burglary

Techniques of Neutralization

Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society's norms

White-Collar Crime (Corporate Crime)

Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; examples include bribery of public officials, securities violation, embezzlement, false advertisement, and price fixing

[Chapter 7] What is the major means by which neocolonialists maintain their superiority and control over other nations of the world?

They manipulate trade and the debt owed by the weaker nations

What is the major characteristic of the caste system that has permitted it to perpetuate itself for more than 3,000 years in India?

Endogamy

Why is ideology more effective than force as a means to maintain stratification?

Coercion is ineffective because it breeds hostility and nourishes rebellion

NASA, Wal-Mart, and even your university are employing "Tiny Brothers" to maintain security. What are the "Tiny Brothers"?

Security cameras placed around facilities, buildings, and parking lots

What did Marx believe was the primary factor that distinguished the different classes under industrial capitalism?

Relationship to the means of production

What are the three components Max Weber believed comprise one's social class?

Property, power, prestige

What name describes companies that operate across many national boundaries which helps the Most Industrialized Nations maintain global dominance?

Multinational corporations

What is the ideology supporting the concept that a society's ruler is God's direct representative on earth to administer justice and punish evil doers?

The divine right of kings

When the United Fruit Company (UFC) controlled national and local politics in Central America, how were its economic interests protected?

There was a detail of United States Marines waiting off shore to protect UFC interests

What is one's ability to control others, even over their objections?

Power

What are the two basic reasons why poor nations remain at the bottom of the world stratification order?

The existence of neocolonialism and the influence of multinational corporations

What would Marx call the shared identity members of the working class have for doing "real work" in relation to their position in the means of production?

Class consciousness

Traditionally, what were the three factors on which slavery was based?

War, debt, and crime

Workers in the maquiladora along the United State and Mexican border make $10 a day, which is only a fraction of what American workers were paid to do the same work. Why is it unlikely, however, that the Mexican workers will go on strike to demand better wages?

Workers in other nations are eager to do the same work for only a dollar or two a day

Which of the following events is responsible for creating extensive economic ties among the world's nations?

The globalization of capitalism

What is the name of the legislation that allows import and export of raw materials and finished products between Mexico and the United States without taxation?

The North American Free Trade Agreement

What term did Karl Marx use to describe the phenomenon of workers mistakenly identifying with the capitalists?

False class consciousness

In democracies, what are the two methods used by the ruling elite to control information?

Technology and the selective release of information

Based on the research of Melvin Tumin, what is the best predictor of being accepted to a college or university in America?

The family income of a student

What technique does Christina Solidarity International (CSI) utilize in response to slavery in areas of northern Africa, including the Sudan?

CSI utilizes Arab "retrievers" who go to Sudan to either abduct or buy slaves

Bourgeoisie

Karl Marx's term for capitalists; those who own the means of production

Caste System

A form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong

Class Consciousness

Karl Marx's term for awareness of a shared identity based on one's position in the means of production

Class System

A form of social stratification

Colonialism

The process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources

Culture of Poverty

The assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

Divine Right of Kings

The idea that the king's authority comes directly from God

Endogamy

The practice of marrying within one's own group

False Class Consciousness

Karl Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists

Globalization of Capitalism

Capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe's dominant economic system

Ideology

Beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements

Means of Production

The tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth

Meritocracy

A form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit

Multinational Corporations

Companies that operate across many national boundaries, also call transnational corporations

Neocolonialism

The economy and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the most In Industrialized Nations

Proletariat

Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production

Slavery

A form of social stratification in which some people own other people

Social Class

According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in power, property and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups, capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor

Social Mobility

Movement up or down the social class ladder

Social Stratification

The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige, applied to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group

[Chapter 8] What phrase best describe how working class people think about economic and social issues?

The working class is more liberal on economic issues and more conservative on social issues

Which set of characteristics is most applicable in describing the poor in the United States?

White, high school drop-out, mother head of household

Which group of theorists believes the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a reserve labor force?

Conflict theorists

What term do sociologists use to refer to a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power and prestige?

Social class

What formula would a sociologist use to determine one's wealth?

Wealth= total property - total debts

What term did C. Wright mills coin to refer to the collection of people who make the big decisions in U.S. society?

Power elite

According to the text, what is the average family income in America?

$61,000

In the United States, what occupation holds the greatest prestige?

Physician

Which explanation of poverty do sociologists generally support?

Sociologist support the social structure over the characteristics of the individual as an explanation of poverty

Which of the following religions draws its membership heavily from the working poor and underclass?

Baptist

Who wrote about mythical ragas-to-riches boy heroes and their amazing success stories?

Horatio Alger

How did Karl Marx define social class?

Social class is solely based on one's relationship to the means of production

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

Intergenerational mobility

What are the two subdivisions of the capitalist class?

"Old" money and "new" money

How many classes exist in Erik Wright's modified Marxian model of social class?

Four

What did sociologists Daniel Hellinger and Dennis Judd call the false impression American voters have that the influence national and foreign policy because they vote?

The democratic facade

What is the approximate number of American children living in poverty?

13 million

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town and now lives below the poverty line. How would a sociologist describe John's situation?

John is poor because of a change in social structure

In addition to the criteria or wealth, power, and prestige, what other component did Kahl and Gilbert include in their six-tier model of class in capitalist countries?

Education

Which class of Americans pride themselves for having "real jobs" and feel that workers in suits are no more than paper pushers with no practical experience?

The working class

Anomie

A condition resulting from status inconsistency

Contradictory Class Locations

Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests

Culture of Poverty

The assumption that values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics on to their children

Downward Social Mobility

Movement down the social class ladder

Exchange mobility

The same number of people move both up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change

Feminization of Poverty

A trend in U.S. poverty where most poor families are headed by women

Horatio Alger myth

The belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough

Income

A flow of money

Intergenerational Mobility

The change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next

Poverty Line

The official measure of poverty; calculate to include those whose incomes are less than three times a low-cost food budget

Power

The ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others

Power Elite

C. Wright Mill's term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics who make the nation's major decisions

Prestige

Respect or regard

Property

Material possessions: animals, bank accounts, bonds, buildings, businesses, cars, furniture, land and stocks

Social Class

According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists, who own the means of production or workers, who sell their labor

Status

Social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or in a social group

Status Consistency

People ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class

Status Inconsistency

Ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others

Structural Mobility

Movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts

Underclass

A group of people for whom poverty persists year after year across generations

Upward Social Mobility

Movement up the social class ladder

Wealth

Property and income

[Chapter 9] What is the attempted destruction of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?

Genocide

What do sociologists call a tendency for people to be blind to the messages that labels convey?

Selective perception

In the late 19th century, what term described immigrants from Europe whose language and customs were different than those who had already settled America?

White ethnics

From which country do Americans of European descent most often trace their ancestry?

Germany

In the 18th century, executioners wore black hoods to conceal their identities and separate their actions from a sense of being a good and moral person. What is such a tactic called?

Compartmentalization

Which sociological perspective best explains the concepts of a reserve labor force and a split labor market?

Conflict theory

What is the intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?

Segregation

What conclusion did sociologist Kathleen Blee reach after she studied women who joined hate groups?

Some women who join hate groups learn to be racists after they join a hate group

Sam, a bartender who served in the Vietnam War, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sociologically, how would one describe Sam's actions?

Sam is guilty of prejudice and discrimination

Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________

Attitudes; actions

Which ethnic group does the text refer to as the "invisible minority"?

Native Americans

Who are the American volunteers concerned with illegal immigration who unofficially patrol the Mexico-United States border?

The minutemen

Hindu was a choice on the U.S. Census as a race from 1920 to 1940. What is the most logical reason it was removed?

Hindu is a religion, not a race

Which European nation provides the best example of multiculturalism?

Switzerland

In the United States we are free to join the Sons of Italy, NAACP, and other groups in which we can proudly display our ethnic and racial heritage. What is this pattern of intergroup relations called?

Pluralism

What term was used to describe the Serb massacre of Muslims in Bosnia?

Ethnic cleansing

Which statement is always true of dominant groups?

A dominant group has greater power and privilege than another

From which nation do the greatest number of Latinos in the United States trace their heritage?

Mexico

What term refers to a racial, ethnic, or religious minority that a member of the dominant group uses to blame for their failure to achieve desired goals?

Scapegoat

What are two major myths about race that are refuted in the text?

Certain races are superior to others, and pure races exist

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