Tough exterior layer of the hair
Middle layer of the hair
Layer of the hair that is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair
Innermost layer of the hair
4.5 and 5.5
Natural pH of the hair
Raise the pH
What do chemical texturizers do to the pH of the hair?
Peptide bonds or end bonds
chemical bonds that join amino acids together
long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges (ionic bonds)
Are easily broken by water (a wet set)
Before perming the hair, what kind of test should you perform on the hair?
Size of the rod
In permanent waving, what determines the size of the curl?
Type of rod that is equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area
Soft bender rods
Usually about 12 inches with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Perm rod also known as circle rod
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope
refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base
on base placement
the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section
half off base placement
the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees perpendicular to its base section
refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head
croquignole and spiral
what are the two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod?
spiral perm wrap
the hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod
the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp midway down the hair shaft
chemical reaction which involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen
Reducing agent used in permanent waving
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions
degree of alkilinity (pH)
What is the second factor in overall strength of a waving solution?
less alkaline solution
Porous hair with a damaged cuticle needs what kind of waving solution?
also known as cold waves with a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 and uses ATG as the reducing agent
activator, waving solution, and neutralizer
What are the three separate components of all acid waves?
What is the activator in acid waves?
Because every step in the pH scale represents a tenfold change in pH, how many more times alkaline is a pH of 7.0 than 5.0?
7.8 and 8.2
The pH range of the acid waves found in today's salons
waving solution, activator, and neutralizer
What are the three components of all exothermic waves?
These kind of waves are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer
ammonia free waves
Perms that use an ingredient that doesn't evaporate as readily as ammonia: ammonia free doesn't necessarily mean damage free
How do ammonia free waves process?
How to low pH waves process? endothermic or exothermic?
within first 5-10 minutes
In permanent waving, when does most of the processing take place?
What stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form?
What is the most common neutralizer?
atleast 5 minutes
to avoid scalp irritation and unwanted lightening of haircolor, always rinse perm solution from the hair for how long?
basic perm wrap, aka straight set wrap
Wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal size bases
curvature perm wrap
partings and bases radiate throughout the panels tgo follow the curvature of the head
Double rod wrap technique
aka piggyback wrap technique in which extra long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft
Chemical hair relazing
process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
the thinnest and weakest sections of the hair strands are located where?
relaxers that use the same ATG as used in permanent waving but at a higher pH (above 10)
measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid
japanese thermal straightening, or TR
combines use of thio relaxer with flat ironing
the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers
type of relaxer that are very strong alkilis and have a pH over 13
process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by a metal
no mixing is used
all metal hydroxide relaxers contain only one component and are used exactly as they are packaged meaning what?
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) relaxers
what kind of relaxers are also referred to as lye relaxers?
these kind of relaxers require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
strength of relaxer formulated for fine, color treated or damaged hair
acid balanced shampoo or normalizing lotion
What should you apply after the application of a relaxer to neutralize any remaining hydroxide ions and lower the pH of the hair and scalp?
no lye relaxer
lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide relaxers
doesn't straighten the hair but makes the existing curl larger and looser and hair is wrapped on large rods