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DNA replication produces two identical DNA molecules, called ________, which separate during mitosis.

Sister chromatids

After chromosomes condense, the _______ is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other.

Centromeres

During mitosis, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the ______.

Kinetochores

In dividing cells, most of the cell's growth occurs during what phase?

Interphase

The ____ ______ is a cell structure consisting of microtubules, which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division.

Mitotic Spindles

During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled wit ha complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form called _____.

Chromatin

In most eukaryotes, division of the nucleus is followed by _______, when the rest of the cell divides.

Cytokinesis

The _____ are the organizing centers for microtubules involved in separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Centrosomes

What is the first step in preparing for division?

Replication of DNA in the S phase.

What phase do the centrosomes replicate?

G2 phase

What main processes occur within prophase?

Tubulins assemble into spindle microtubules and the cohesins join sister chromatids of duplicated chromosome.

What main processes occur within prometaphase?

Microtubules attach to kinetochores.

What main processes occur within metaphase?

Kinetochores are motionless in relation to poles of cell.

What main processes occur within anaphase?

Cohesins break down and kinetochores move toward poles of cell.

What main processes occur within telophase?

Spindle microtubules disassemble.

What happens to the length of the mitotic spindles during prophase?

Lengthen

During anaphase, the nonkinetochore microtubules _______ and move past each other, and the kinetochore microtubules _______

Lengthen; shorten

During telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules _________.

Disassemble

During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided.

The mitotic phase

During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.

Interphase

Which of these are carcinogens?

UV light, cigarette smoke, testosterone, fat

_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.

Fat

Nucleoli are present during which phase?

Interphase

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.

Telophase

Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.

Anaphase

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.

Prometaphase

What happens during anaphase?

During anaphase centromeres come apart, and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes, which migrate to opposite poles of the cell.

In animal cells, what forms before cytokinesis?

Cleavage furrow

What phase do chromosomes align on the metaphase plate?

Metaphase

What happens during prometaphase?

The spindle fibers attach to the kinetochores

True or False: The nuclear envelope disintegrates before the start of mitosis.

False

True or false? Mitosis takes place during M phase, which is the longest phase of the cell cycle.

False

Which term describes two recently replicated DNA strands that are joined together just before cell division?

Sister Chromatids

During which stage of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in the center of the cell?

Metaphase

Which stage of mitosis is characterized by the disintegration of mitotic spindles and the formation of two new nuclear membranes?

Telophase

To which part of the centromere do mitotic spindle fibers attach during prometaphase?

Kinetochore

During which substage of mitosis do sister chromatids break apart and start moving to opposite poles of the cell?

Anaphase

Which of the following is a function of the S phase in the cell cycle?

The synthesis of sister chromatids

The copying of chromosomes occurs during which of the following phases of the cell cycle?

S phase

For the first several divisions of early frog embryos, cells proceed directly from the M phase to the S phase and back to M without gaps. Which of the following is likely to be true about dividing cells in early frog embryos?

The cells get smaller with each generation

True or false? The M phase is characterized by the replication and division of a cell's chromosomes.

False

If an organism normally has 34 chromosomes, how many molecules of DNA should there be in the G1 phase of the cell cycle?

34

Which of the following events would cause the cell cycle to arrest?

Poor nutrient conditions

What is cancer?

abnormal or uncontrolled division of cells

What is a lymphocyte?

a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response

Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei forming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely

A plant cell in the process of cytokinesis

Vinblastine is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the assembly of micro-tubules, its effectiveness must be related to

Disruption of mitotic spindle formation

`The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to

The degredation of cyclin

In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytoki-nesis. This will result in

cells with more than one nucleus

Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?

Replication of the DNA

A particular cell has half as much DNA as some other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in

G1

Which statement provides the best description of the interphase portion of the cell cycle?

During interphase, a cell is metabolically active

What is true of all cancers?

They have escaped normal cell cycle controls

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