5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- The viral genes integrate into the host chromosome and become active within the basal layer (location of stem cells)
- S phase
- Mitogen mediated signals
- Uncontrolled DNA replication and cell division
How can cancer result from a papillomavirus?
What signals are important for driving the cell cycle?
- c Deletion, inactivation or DNA methylation of what gene has been identified in human cancers?
E7 binding prevents Rb from binding to and inhibiting the activity of the E2F family of gene regulatory proteins leading to what?
Active Rb protein binds to E2F family members to block expression of downstream genes. These downstream genes encode proteins responsible for entry into what?
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- How is cell number maintained?
- When do animal cells undergo apoptosis?
- What protein is normally involved in inhibiting apoptosis?
Is phosphorylated Rb active or inactive?
In nonproliferating cells, Rb is in its what state?
5 True/False Questions
The host cell Rb protein →
The viral E6 protein binds to what?
Cdk4 and cyclin D genes → Some glioblastomas and breast cancers have been linked to overexpression of what?
Akt → Will mice with a single copy of a tumor suppressor gene deleted accumulate cancerous tumors at a higher frequency?
1. Loss of p53 allows cells to progress through the cell cycle with DNA damage,
2. Loss of p53 allows cells to escape from apoptosis,
3. Loss of p53 promotes genetic instability which promotes the accumulation of DNA
4. Loss of p53 makes cells more resistant to anticancer drugs and irradiation → The loss of p53 promotes cancer for what 4 reasons?
1. Transmembrane receptors,
2. Signaling proteins,
3. Intracellular GTP-binding proteins,
4. Protein kinases,
6. Gene regulatory proteins → Development and maintenance of a multicellular organism depends on numerous regulatory pathways. What are they?