What does Vita stand for?
What does Amines stand for?
vitamins do not yield?
Vitamins that assist enzymes that release energy from macronutrients from macronutrients are known as?
Vitamins are measured in?
Vitamin availability depends on quantity provided by food and ?
The rate at which a nutrient is absorbed and used is known as?
vitamin precursors are known as?
Vitamins can be destroyed by prolonged heating, uv light and?
Water soluble vitamins are absorbed into the ________ system.
Fat soluble vitamins are first absorbed into the ________ system
_____ soluble vitamin are stored in the fat cells so there is a much greater risk of toxicity
Both Fat and Water soluble vitamins have a toxicity possibility with?
What type of vitamins are needed in frequent doses?
water soluble vitamins
What type of vitamins are needed in periodic doses?
fat soluble vitamins
______ ______ _______ are established for water-soluble vitamins to prevent toxicity.
tolerable upper levels
What are the water soluble vitamins that can lead to a toxicity?
Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Choline Vitamin C
Vitamin B1 is also known as?
The Coenzyme form of Thiamine is?
The chief function of Thiamine is?
Coenzyme in energy metabolism
What deficiency disease is caused by a lack of Thiamine?
____ ______ symptoms of a thiamine deficiency that include edema, enlarged heart, and cardiac failure
____ _____ symptoms of a thiamine deficiency that include muscle wasting and a high stepping gate.
Wernicke-Korsakoff is a severe thiamine deficiency in?
Edema of Beriberi is seen in _________ berberi.
What are the two coenzyme forms of Riboflavin?
What is the chief function of riboflavin?
Riboflavin is found in all nutritious foods but is ubiquitous or destroyed by?
What is the difeceny disease of riboflavin?
Glossitis is a deficiency symptom of ________ and causes a red, swollen and inflamed _________
Riboflavin deficiency symptom of _________ is red eyes and sensitivity to light.
Cracks in the corners of the mouth or even the tongue is a deficiency symptom of Riboflavin called?
____ is no longer stored in clear glass bottles because of loss of riboflavin by exposure to UV light.
Nictronic acid is Niacin absorbed from?
What are the coenzyme forms of Niacin?
_________ is a precursor AA that turns into Niacin but requires vitamin ____ to do the process
Niacin's chief function is to be a ________ in energy metabolism
_____ is found in all nutritious foods especially all protein containing foods.
What is the main deficiency disease caused by a lack of niacin?
What are the 4 Ds of Pellagra?
Diarrhea dementia dermatitis death
The toxicity of niacin is called a niacin_____ which causes hives and rashes
Pellagra caused misery in the early 1900's in the Southern US because of a _____ based diet which lacked protein and Niacin.
What is the coenzyme form of Biotin?
What is the chief function of biotin?
Biotin is found in all nutritious foods but is ubiquitous and produced by the GI bacteria with ______ _________.
Depression; lethargy; hallucinations; numb/tingling sensation in arms/legs; red scaly rash around eyes, nose, and mouth; hair loss are all deficiency symptoms of?
Protein ______ in egg white binds biotin and makes it unavailable for absorption. They have to be raw because cooking them denatures the protein.
Pantothenic acid is easily destroyed in _____ _______.
_______ _____ is part of Coenzyme A and is used in energy metabolism.
What are the two coenzymes of Vitamin B6?
What Vitamins chief functions are PLP/PMP used in AA and FA metabolism; conversion of trypophan to niacin/tryptophan to serotonin; RBC synthesis; heme systhesis; RNA/DNA synthesis
A deficiency of Vitamin B6 is ____ or sores in the lining of the mouth.
A toxicity of B6 can lead to ____ ______ and _____ ______
nerve damage muscle weakness
Megadoses of B6 does not cure ______ it just causes nerve damages and sleep disorders
Folate (folic acid) has many vital functions, but one of folate's most important roles is to reduces risk of fetal?
neural tube defects
Folate is important in______ synthesis ... and therefore new cell synthesis
The RDA for Folate of women in the child bearing age is ______ micrograms and for pregnant women is _______ micrograms
All ________ products in US are currently fortified with folic acid to help decrease neural tube defect risk
Thiamin riboflavin niacin folic acid are also called folate and iron are the things that are in?
The coenzyme forms of folate are?
What activates Folate?
A deficiency of folate can lead to ______ anemia where the red blood cell is too big.
A key role for folate is __________ break- down.
In the center of Vitamin B12 is?
Vitamin B12 is found only in?
Vitamin B12 like folate is continually secreted into _____ and delivered to the intestine, where it is reabsorbed. Because most B12 is reabsorbed, healthy people rarely have a deficiency even when their intake is minimal.
Lack of ______ or _____ ________ can lead to inadequate absorption of B12
HCL Intrinsic Factor
In pernicious anemia, no _____ ______ is produced which stops b12 absorbtion in the stomach and leads to macrocytic anemia
Atrophic gastritis is a chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by diminished size and function of mucous membranes & glands and effects mainly?
What vitamin is the only B vitamin that is stored extensively in the liver?
_____ _______ does have a storage reason so it will take years to cause a deficiency.
_____ is a N- containing compound made from methionine
_______ is Used to make neurotransmitter acetylcholine & lecithin
________ is a nonessential nutrient made in the body from glucose ... used in cell membranes
There is a lot of carnitine in human ______ so it plays an important role in human infancy
Symptoms of Scurvy are not apparent until the vitamin C pool is in _______ percent decline around ______ days.
British sailors became known as limeys because they were given a ration of ______ to prevent scurvy
Ascrobic acid is another name for?
Collagen synthesis, antioxidant, thyroxin synthesis, AA metabolism, increased infection resistance, increased iron (Fe) absorption are all chief functions of?
Vitamin C is found in a lot of ____ fruits.
Vit C: Cofactor in _______ synthesis