Ch 40 Basic animal Form and Function

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Campbell & Reece 8th edition

When air temperature exceeds their body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will

constrict the blood vessels in their large ears.

Which choice best describes a reasonable evolutionary mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited to specific functions?

Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant.

Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals exchange matter with the environment include

external respiratory surface, small size, and two-layered body.

Similar fusiform body shapes are seen in sharks, penguins, and aquatic mammals because

the laws of physics constrain the shapes that are possible for aquatic animals that swim very fast.

Regarding the evolution of specialized animal structures,

short-term adjustments to environmental changes are often mediated by physiological organ systems.

All animals, whether large or small, have

all of their living cells surrounded by an aqueous medium.

As body size increases in animals, there is

a decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio.

To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces in the lungs and in the intestines, evolutionary pressures have

increased the surface area available for exchange.

A specialized function shared by the many cells lining the lungs and the lumen of the gut is

increased exchange surface provided by their membranes.

Interstitial fluid...

provides for the exchange of materials between blood and body cells.

Multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an ʺinternal pondʺ because

cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes.

Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up

organs.

An exchange surface is in direct contact with the external environment in the

lungs.

The epithelium type with the shortest diffusion distance is

simple squamous epithelium.

The lining of the smallest tubules in the kidneys is composed of

epithelial tissue.

An example of a connective tissue is the

blood.

Stratified cuboidal epithelium is composed of

several layers of box-like cells.

Connective tissues have

relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix.

The fibers responsible for the elastic resistance properties of tendons are

collagenous fibers.

If you gently twist your ear lobe it does not remain distorted because it contains

elastin fibers.

Fibroblasts secrete

proteins for connective fibers.

Blood is best classified as connective tissue because

its cells can be separated from each other by an extracellular matrix.

Muscles are joined to bones by

tendons.

With its abundance of collagenous fibers, cartilage is an example of

connective tissue.

Bones are held together at joints by

ligaments.

A matrix of connective tissue is apparent in

actin and myosin of muscle.

The nucleus of a typical nerve cell is found in the

cell body.

All types of muscle tissue have

interactions between actin and myosin.

All skeletal muscle fibers are both

striated and voluntary.

Cardiac muscle is both

striated and branched.

The type of muscle tissue associated with internal organs, other than the heart, is

smooth muscle.

Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by

smooth muscles.

The cells lining the air sacs in the lungs make up a

simple squamous epithelium.

The bodyʹs automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is termed

homeostasis.

An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when

the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise.

An example of effectorsʹ roles in homeostatic responses is observable when

an increase in body temperature results from shivering.

Positive feedback has occurred when

a nursing infantʹs sucking increases the secretion of a milk-releasing hormone in the mother.

Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that

the effectorʹs response in positive feedback is in the same direction as the initiating stimulus rather than opposite to it.

To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmouth moths

rapidly contract and relax these muscles to generate metabolic warmth.

An ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally -sized endotherm because

the ectotherm invests little energy in temperature regulation.

Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of

evaporation.

An ectothermic organism that has few or no options when it comes to its behavioral ability to adjust its body temperature is a

sea star, a marine invertebrate.

An overheated and sick dog has an impaired thermoregulatory response if it

increases its body temperature to match the environmental temperature.

Endothermy

involves production of heat through metabolism.

Panting observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by

evaporation.

An organism that has only behavioral controls over its body temperature is the

green frog.

Most amphibians and land-dwelling invertebrates

are ectothermic organisms.

The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the

hypothalamus.

A female Burmese python incubating her eggs warms them using

shivering thermogenesis.

In mammals this response is known as fever, but it is known to raise body temperature in other bacterially infected animals, including lizards, fishes, and cockroaches:

a change in thermostat ʺset-pointʺ

What does the difference in temperature between arteries and veins in the gooseʹs legs indicate?

Minimizing the temperature difference between the feet and the abdomen means the goose will lose less
heat.

Near the gooseʹs abdomen, the consequence of this arrangement of the arterial and venous blood vessels is that

the temperature difference between the vessels is minimized by countercurrent exchange.

Ingested foods in snakes are typically digested by

enzymatic hydrolysis.

Seasonal changes in snake activity are explained by which statement?

The snake is more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction.

The best time to measure an animalʹs basal metabolic rate is when the animal

is resting and has not eaten its first meal of the day.

Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR)

are both measured in animals in a resting and fasting state.

For an adult human female, the metabolic ʺcostsʺ of pregnancy and lactation are

5—8% more than when she was non-pregnant.

As body size increases among birds,

the rate of energy use per cell decreases.

Among these choices, the least reliable indicator of an animalʹs metabolic rate is the amount of

water consumed in one day.

Deer mice in warm climates and penguins in cold climates differ in their energy budgets in that

deer mice use a greater proportion of their metabolic energy to maintain body temperature.

During its months-long hibernation, the body temperature of a ground squirrel

varies between 5 and 37°C, depending on the frequency of arousals from hibernation.

For a non-hibernating squirrel, the daily expenditure of metabolic energy is

always greater than the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

ʺWinter acclimatizationʺ in mammals can include

hibernation through the season of extreme cold.

Hibernation and estivation are both examples of

torpor.

Panting by an overheated dog is an example of

evaporative cooling.

Metabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during

non-shivering thermogenesis.

A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via

shivering thermogenesis.

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