# ITGS Chapter 8 - Computer Models and Simulations

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Key terms for the ITGS topic 'Computer Models and Simulations'. These relate to chapter 8 of the textbook (www.itgstextbook.com).

### absolute cell reference

In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which does not change when moved.

### assumptions

Often made during the construction of a computer model, as part of the simplification process.

### car crash model

Used to predict the results of car crashes.

### cell format

In spreadsheets, the properties of a cell such as its colour, font, and cell type.

### cell range

In spreadsheets, reference to a range of continuous cells.

### cell reference

In spreadsheets, a combination of row number and column letter to refer to a single cell (e.g. A2).

### centralized processing

Single computer with multiple processors working on a task.

### CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics. A technique used to model airflow in computer models.

### climate model

Computer model used to predict possible future climate change.

### Computer model

Mathematical representation of the real world using computer software.

### Computer simulation

Based on computer models, gives users experience of events such as flying a plane.

### Decision Support System

Use of models or expert systems to aid (business) decision making processes.

### distributed processing

Use of multiple separate computers working together on a common task.

### feedback loop

Comparing the results of a computer model to actual (real life) results, and using the differences to improve the model for the future.

### flight simulator

Simulator hardware and software used to train pilots.

### formula

In spreadsheets, a combination of cell references and mathematical operations.

### full motion platform

Hardware device which can move in many directions to increase the realism of simulators.

### function

Built in features of spreadsheets for performing common calculations.

### Global Climate Model

Computer model used to predict possible future climate change.

### goal seek

Spreadsheet tool used to determine the required values to meet a certain goal.

### grid computing

Use of multiple separate computers working together on a common task.

### high performance computing

High speed computing using multiple processors

### parallel processing

High speed computing using multiple processors

### prediction

Output of a computer model.

### relative cell reference

In a spreadsheet, a cell reference which updates when moved.

### simplification

Difference between a computer model's representation of a process, and the real life process.

Application software for performing numerical calculations and analysis.

### supercomputer

Fastest computers available, capable of performing trillions of calculations per second.

### variables

Components of a computer model which can be altered to vary the output.

### visualisation

Graphical or animated output from a computer model or simulation.

### What-if scenario

Use of a computer model to test the results of different situations and scenarios.

Example:

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