acronym for causes of WWI
Assassination off Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand = WWI spark
First Moroccan Crisis (1905-6)
Germany disliked French dominance in Morocco. Wilhelm tries to stir nationalistic feelings to push out France. US mediates. 13 other countries back France. Germany's only supporter is Austria-Hungary.
Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)
Germany sends gunboat to Agadir to support Morocco against France, which is interpreted as an act of war. British restrain France but support with navy, discouraging Germany. France establishes a protectorate.
"Agreement"/pre-alliance between Britain, France, Russia, later US will join
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (will switch sides), later Ottoman join
Archduke, heir to Austrian throne. He actually believed Slavic people should be more free! He was assassinated in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist who believed Bosnia should belong to Serbia
de facto alliance: France, Russia, Britain
de facto alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman, Italy
method of warfare (first used under Louis XIV)
deadly gas used by Germans
Battle of the Somme
July 1916 battle in France. One of the largest battles, but indecisive? very little land covered, characteristic of WWI
John Singer Sargent
painter, depicted mustard gas and WWI fighting
Freedom of the Seas
US claimed right to trade with either side (neutral) but this was violated by both Britain & Germany. US started shipping in passenger ships, the Lusitania was torpedoed by German U Boats = spark.
Sent from Germany to Mexico, urging Mexico to attack the US (Germany promising to help regain land lost in Mexican War).
When does US get involved in WWI?
2 months to end, declares war on Central Powers in 1917
Wilson's 14 points
a "solution" featuring 14 ideal terms to end war, including: end to secret agreements, freedom of seas/trade, limit arms, self-determination, and a league of nations.
Treaty of Versailles
peace treaty at end of WWI. Treaties fails to solve problems. Germany forced to take full blame for war, completely disarm, pay huge reparations, give up colonies to Allies, war guilt clause (more reparations) --> humiliated, set stage for WWII. (Note: US did not sign this treaty, also not member of league of nations)
Created at the end of WWI, with sea access, but this isolated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. A demilitarized zone was also created around Rhine.
effect on US economy
rose above Europe. US became "closed-door"
effect on unions
demanded more, since less ppl. Women gained power while men were at war