AP US HISTORY: IMPORTANT SUPREME COURT CASES 222

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SUPREME COURT CASES

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The court established its role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws, the principle is known as judicial review

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

The decision stems from the Yazoo land cases, 1803, and upholds the sanctity of contracts. first time supreme court assumed right to declare a state law unconstitutional

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the U.S.; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U.S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1832)

ruled an indian tribe was neither a foreign nation nor a state and therefore had no standing in federal courts. But indians still had unquestioned right to their land

Worchester v. Georgia (1832)

Established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive" the laws of georgia can have no force

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)

The interests of the community are more important than the interests of business; the supremacy of society's interest over private interest

Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

Speaking for a widely divided court, Chief Justice Taney ruled that Dredd Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state and territory had not made him free since he returned to Missouri; Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820

Ex parte Milligan (1866)

Ruled that a civilian cannot be tried in military courts while civil courts are available, 1866

Munn v. Illinois (1877)

A United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads

Civil Rights Cases (1883)

Legalized segregation with regard to private property, 1883. Cases invalidated Civil Rights acts of 1875

Wabash RR v Illinois (1886)

National power. Federalism. The Supreme Court forbade any state to set rates, even within its own borders, on railroad traffic entering from or bound for another state. This paved the way for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887.

In Re Debs (1895)

denied a writ of habeas corpus to Eugene Debs, after he was cited for contempt for violating an injunction against the Pullman strike. Strike interfered with the federal responsibility to transport the mails and its authority over interstate commerce

U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895)

Due to a narrow interpretation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act,the Court undermined the authority of the federal government to act against monopolies, 1895American sugar refining company

Pollock v Farmers' Loan and Trust Co (1895)

Declared the income tax under the Wilson-Gorman Tariff to be unconstitutional because it violated the constitutional probision that direct taxes be based solely on the size of the population. In 1913 Amendment 16, income tax amendment was ratified. gave congress the right to tax income without regard to pop. size

Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal"

Holden v. Hardy (1896)

tHE suprem court upheld a law regulating the working hours of miners because their work was so dangerous that overly long hours would increase the threat of injury.

Cummins v. County Board of Education (1899)

In deciding this case, the U.S. Supreme Court officially applied the "separate but equal doctrine" to public schools. As a result of this decision and Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation laws known as Jim Crow laws, piled up throughout the South.

Northern Securities Co. v. U.S. (1904)

.Re-established the authority of the federal government to fight monopolies under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, northern securities corporation by jp morgan

Lochner v. New York (1905)

A New York State law fixing maximum working hours for bakers was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. The court held the law exceeded the police powers of the state and interfered with the individual's right to freedom of contract under Amendment 14.

Muller v. Oregon (1908)

Supreme court ruling that upheld a ten-hour work day law for women largely on the basis of sociological data regarding the effects of long hours on the health and morals of women.

Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)

The Supreme Court declared the Keating-Owen Child Labor
Law unconstitutional. Keating-Owen had prohibited the shipment in interstate commerce of products made with child labor.

Abrahms v U.S (1919)

This U.S. Supreme Court decision upheld the constitutionality of the Sedition Act (1918) which made it a crime to speak disloyally of the U.S. government or interfere with the war effort. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. dissented in the decision, holding that the Sedition Act was a violation of freedom of speech guaranteed under the First Amendment to the Constitution.

Schenck v. U.S. (1919)

Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which decalred that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; decalred that the 1rst Amendment right to freedom of speech was no absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger"

Bailey v Drexel Furniture Co (1922)

dealt with the 1919 Child Labor Tax Law which gave congress the right to tax 10% of the value of companies employing children under the age of 14; the USSC found that the law violated the tenth amendment and took away a power reserved to the states

Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)

Declard unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract. reversed supreme courts ruling in muller v. oregon which had declared women to be deserving of special protection in the workplace. said women were now equal and didn't need protection

Schecter v. U.S. (1935)

Sometimes called "the sick chicken case." or Schecter poultry case Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on three grounds : the act delegated legislative power to the executive, there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character, 1936

Korematsu v. U.S (1944)

The court upheld the constitutionality of detention camps for Japanese-Americans during World War II, 1941

Dennis et al. V. U.S. (1951)

The Smith Act passed in 1940 made it a crime to teach or advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force or violence. It also required the fingerprinting and registration of all aliens. In 1947 eleven American Communist Party members were successfully prosecuted and jailed under this act. In Dennis et al. V. U.S. the Supreme Court upheld the
constitutionality of the Smith Act.

Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952)

(a) Supreme Court placed limits on the foreign affairs authority of the president. (b) Federal government seized control of the nation's steel mills during the Korean War. (c) Presidents cannot act contrary to the clearly expressed will of Congress in domestic matters.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)

Unanimous decision declaring "separate but equal" unconstitutional

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

Extends to the defendant the right of counsel (lawyer) in STATE AS WELL AS FEDERAL CRIMINAL TRIALS regardless of their ability to pay. major broadening of the us bill of rights

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

The court ruled that those subject to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent, 1966

New York Times v U.S (1971)

The U.S. President Richard Nixon had claimed executive authority to force the Times to suspend publication of classified information in its possession. The question before the court was whether the constitutional freedom of the press under the First Amendment was subordinate to a claimed Executive need to maintain the secrecy of information. The Supreme Court ruled that First Amendment did protect the New York Times' right to print said materials.

Roe v. Wade (1973)

The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on the 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons. 1973

U.S. v. Richard Nixon (1974)

The court rejected Richard Nixon's claim to an abolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process

Bakke v. University of California (1978)

In this 5-4 ruling the Supreme Court outlawed quotas
and ordered that Alan Bakke be admitted to medical school. But the court also upheld the principle of affirmative action, explaining that race or ethnicity could be counted as a plus in an applicant's file as long as it did "not insulate the individual from comparison with other candidates."

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