Unit 3: World war II

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Eugenics

The study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating).

Fascism

A political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed by a powerful dictator.

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Mein Kamph

Hitler's book---"My Struggles" . It combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology. Believed in Eugenics and a master race (Blond hair, blue eye, and aryan race)

Nazi Party (Nazism)

The political philosophy - based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansionism - that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945.

Anti-Semitism

Policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews.

Der Fuher

Hitler "the leader" Germany.

Storm Troopers

Nazis' private army used by Hitler to terrorize communists, Socialists, and trade union workers, especially the Jews.

Third Reich

The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945.

Emperor Hirohito

Emperor of Japan during WWII. His people viewed him as a god.

Hideki Tojo

This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944. Also, was convicted as a War Criminal.

Lebensraum

(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.

Munich Pact

Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Gemany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time". This act was appeasement.

Appeasement

The granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace.

Blitzkrieg

From the German word meaning "lightning war," a sudden, massive attack with combined air and ground forces, intended to achieve a quick victory.

Neutrality Act of 1937

A series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to nations at war.

"Cash and Carry"

Policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

Lend-Lease Act

Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." (Countries who were democratic countries)

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Starting point of WW2 for the U.S. in the Pacific which mostly between US and Japanese. A "date which will live in infamy" -- Dec. 7, 1941 -- 3,000 casualties & fleet destroyed, this led to the U.S. entry into the war.

"Arsenal of Democracy"

Referred to America's Ability to supply its European allies with war supplies prior to the U.S. entry into WWII.

Rationing

Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.

Dr. Charles Drew

A great doctor who discovered a way to store and keep blood. Created blood bank.

Executive Order 8802

In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.

Selective Service

The requirement that all men between 21 and 30 must register for the military draft

WAAC's

The "Women's Army Axillary Corps", an acronym given to reference women in the army. Women being in the army changed their roles in society and gained them new respect.

Japanese Internment

Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 men, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Race to Berlin

U.S. and Britain raced to Berlin against Soviets. Soviets got to Berlin first.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

Led the allied invasion of North Africa and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the battle of the budge.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The 32nd president (Democratic) of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).

Yalta Conference

February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.

Island Hopping

WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan.

Harry S. Truman

elected Vice President in Roosevelt's 4th term

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West. Britain Prime Minister.

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

August 1945, the US drops bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing massive destruction. This was arguably to put a quicker end to the war and to save lives (it's debatable whether or not it did).

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements (about who would get Poland, eventually Russia held on to it) soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Midway

An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers.

Guadalcanal

One of the Solomon Islands in southwest Pacific, Japanese building airstrip, August 1942 battle, Allies won. 6th month battle for an air strip.

Manchuria

With a base in Korea the Japanese moved into Manchuria and pushed out the Russians, Manchuria proved to be an invaluable foothold in China.

Anschluss

The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.

Rhineland

Region between Germany and France demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles; Hitler occupied and fortified the region. Between France border and Rhineland river that runs through Germany.

Sudentenland

A region of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived; demanded by Hitler in 1938 to have control of this land; when Czechs refused, Hitler threatened war.

Yamamoto

Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 (1884-1943).

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled people.

Rape of Nanking

6-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing. Thousands of civilians were murdered and raped by soldiers of Imperial Japanese Army.

Firebombing of Tokyo

Bombing of Tokyo by the United States Army Air Forces; took place during the Pacific campaigns of WWII and included the most destructive bombing raid in history (1942-1945).

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