AP Biology Hormones

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Major human endocrine glands and some of their hormones.

Oxytocin

Stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Promotes retention of water by kidneys.

Growth hormone (GH)

Stimulates growth (especially bones)and metabolic functions.

Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates milk production and secretion.

Follice-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Stimulates production of ova and sperm.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Stimulates ovaries and testes.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Stimulates thyroid gland.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.

Triiogothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

Stimulate and maintain metabolic processes.

Calcitonin

Lowers blood calcium level.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Raises blood calcium level.

Insulin

Lowers blood glucose level.

Glucagon

Raises blood glucose level.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Raises blood glucose level; increase metabolic activities; constrict certain blood vessels.

Glucocorticoids

Raise blood glucose level.

Mineralocorticoids

Promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in kidneys.

Androgens

Support sperm formation; promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics.

Estrogens

Stimulate uterine lining growth; promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.

Progestins

Promote uterine lining growth.

Melatonin

Involved in biological rhythms.

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