The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the conflict known as the
In the early sixteenth century, anticlericalism focused primarily on all of the following issues except
The heresy of priests who preached messages contrary to church doctrine.
Which of the following best describes Martin Luther's doctrine of salvation?
Salvation came through faith alone as a free gift of God's grace.
What aided Martin Luther as his call for reform emerged?
Luther understood the power of the new printing press and authorized the publication of his works.
How did Luther benefit from his appearance before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V as the Diet of Worms?
Luther gained a larger audience for his reform ideas, and others began to challenge the church's teachings and practices.
The Colluquy of Marburg
Failed to resolve the differences among PRotestants on the issue of the Eucharist.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre led to
A lengthy civil war.
Luther believed that the church consisted of
The entire community of Christian believers.
Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany
Appealed to the national sentiment of German princes.
How did the choice to embrace of reject the Reform movement occur in a territory or region in the Holy Roman Empire?
The political leader(s) of the territory or region determined whether to introduce reforms.
Why did Protestants allow the dissolution of marriages in divorce?
Protestants viewed marriage as a contract for mutual support, and married partners who failed to provide support endangered their souls and the entire community.
As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany
Became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince.
Luther viewed celibacy as
Opposed to human nature and God's commandments.
How did the closings of the monasteries and convents affect upper-class women?
Marriage became virtually the only occupation for upper-class women.
Why did Elizabeth I haver her cousin and heir Mary, Queen of Scots, executed?
Mary became implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
Why did John Calvin reject the idea of human free will?
Human free will would detract from the sovereignty of God.
Matin Luther's first response to the Peasants' War was
to side with the peasants
The Consistory was
A body of laymen and pastors who led Geneva.
How did the Calvinists understand the idea of work or labor?
Hard work, well done, was pleasing to God, and all work with a religious aspect was dignified.
The Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to a
Confidence among Calvinists in their on salvation.
In Hungary, Lutheranism was
Spread by Hungarian students who had studied at the University of Wittenberg.
The dissolution of the English monasteries
Resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth.
How widespread was the influence of the Inquisition?
The Inquisition effectively destroyed heresy within the Papal States but had little influence elsewhere.
The Reformation in England was primarily the result of
The dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.
In addition to reforming the church, what was the other goal of the Council of Trent?
To secure reconciliation with the Protestants.
The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to
Popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII's reformation.
The Edict of Nantes
Granted French Huguenots the right to worship in 150 towns.
In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that
Was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes.
The inquisitorial legal procedure differed from the accusatorial legal procedure in all of the following ways except
An accuser could be sued if charges were not proven.
What was the fate of most people brought before in the Inquisition and accused of witchcraft?
They were sent home with a warning and ordered to do penance.
France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to
Prevent Charles V from increasing his power.
The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was
To uplift the moral condition of both clergy and laity.
A new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the