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What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?

punishment

Which of the following is true of research on insight?

Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning

Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the ________ is the unconditioned stimulus.

fish food

Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of ________.

biological preparedness

A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ________.

learned helplessness

After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called ________.

extinction

An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?

Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

In their 1961 paper on instinctive drift, the Brelands determined that three assumptions most Skinnerian behaviorists believed in were not actually true. Which is one of the assumptions that was NOT true?

All of these were not true.

While watching the evening news you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder "why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?"According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victim's staying in abusive relationships is ________.

learned helplessness

When the number of responses is important to a schedule of reinforcement, that schedule is called a ________ schedule.

ratio

________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.

Learning

Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of the dogs, and they began to salivate. Pavlov's student noticed that after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student's footsteps. The salivation to the sound of the footsteps was a ________.

conditioned response

Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an)
________.

unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as ________.

punishment by application

A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by ________.

operant conditioning

In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called ________.

successive approximations

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