the ability to create, acquire, analyse, maintain and disseminate knowledge for the benefit of patient care
Literature review focussed on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesise high quality research evidence relevant to the question
conflict of interest
a set of conditions whereby professional judgement concerning a primary interest is unduly influenced by a secondary influence
source: Original material that has not been altered by a third party. Represents new thoughts, discoveries or ideas
source:Information about a primary source that has been modified. It may describe, interpret, analyse or evaluate primary sources of information
source:A collection of primary and secondary sources. Materials have been modified, collated, re-analysed etc. then compiled into a concise format such as a textbook or guide
Information where investigators observe the natural course of events. It is cheap, ethical and quick
Information where investigators have intervened to decide who will be exposed and who will not to a particular intervention
Allocation of subjects to groups. This can be reduced via randomisation with concealment
Implementation of interventions. This can be reduced via double blinding or use of a placebo
Follow up of participants. This can be reduced via analysis of subjects as randomised.
Difference in proportion of subjects with the outcome of interest. events in placebo group -events in treatment group.
Probability of an event in the active treatment group divided by that of the control group
Involve a clear question, then specific methods to identify, select and appraise relevant research and then finally the results are analysed and summarised. Aims to minimise bias and maximise confidence. For example, the Cochrane reviews