nutrition ch 10

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ch 10 question

what is a feature of vitamins?

the quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

what is a precursor?

a substance that is used to synthesize another compound

what is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

the amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include what?

toxic levels in the body are rarely found
they are absorbed directly into the blood
excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

what are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins

-absorption is via the lymphatic circulation
-several of them require protein carriers for transport
-they can be stored in relatively large amounts in certain body tissues

cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of?

vitamin A

which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk

vitamin A

what is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins

kidney

when thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

excreted primarily in the urine

what is a chief function of the b vitamins

coenzyme participation

which of the following explains why b vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy

coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme

attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to occur

which function has a requirement for thiamin

energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

what is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme

assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

what is a coenzyme form of thiamin

thiamin pyrophosphate

beriberi results from a deficiency of what

thiamin
(high intake of white rice)

what is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition

it is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

approx. what % of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency

80

which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size

ham, soy milk
-poor sources include seafood and cheeses

how does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability

microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of

hydrogen atoms

which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions

riboflavin

what is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin

inflamed mouth membranes

what food group contains high amounts of riboflavin when expressed per kcal

vegetables

what is ariboflavonosis

the vitamin B2 deficiency disease
-bad when diet is low in dairy foods

riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

UV light

the coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin

riboflavin

which of the following is a property riboflavin in nutrition

stability to heat is good

what is property of niacin in nutrition

it can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

what property is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes

acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms

when the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin

tryptophan

the vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

"tough skin"

low-protein diet with corn as principal food causes a deficiency of what vitamin

niacin
-the disease pellagra also appears
symptoms include diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis

a general niacin deficiency is know to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs...

skin
nervous system
gastrointestinal tract

which substance is found in corn that contributes to the development of pellagra

leucine

which of the following overt side effects is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?

painful, tingling, itching sensation
niacin flush
result in dilation of capillaries, increased HDL, lowering LDL

your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. what is the only possible vitamin with toxicity symptoms

niacin

what is approx. niacin RDA for adults

15 niacin equivalents
-chicken is the best source

features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following

it functions in the breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids
it functions as a carrier of CO2 in energy metabolism
a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large quantities of raw egg whites

among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?

biotin

which of the following is synthesized by intestinal bacteria

biotin

what is the adult adequate intake for biotin

30 µg

what vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A and is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of fodd

pantothenic acid

forms of vitamins B6 include

pyridoxal
pyridoxine
pyridoxamine

which vitamin is stored primarily in muscle tissue and involved intensively in amino acid metabolism

vitamin b6

the chief symptoms of early vitamin b6 deficiency include

confusion and depression

all of the following are features of vitamin b6 metabolism

a deficiency leads to depression
its destruction and excretion are promoted by alcohol intake
it functions primarily as the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate

what is the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin b6
and adult RDA

100 mg
1.3 mg

which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity

toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible

in what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin b6 metabolism

it dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme

what food is richest in vitamin b6 on a per-kcal intake basis

veggies

what is an essential nutrient for human beings

folate

pteroylglutamic acid is known as

folate

all of the following are properties of folate in nutrition

it is needed for proper functioning of vitamin b12
it requires enzymes on the intestinal mucosa to enhance its absorption from most foods

what characteristic is shared by vitamin b 12 and folate

both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

a person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

what is most likely the explanation for the impaired functioning of the GU tract resulting from folate deficiency

since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

approx. what % of dietary folate is bioavailable
-what % bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is

50
100

research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

folate

what is a type of neural tube defect

spina bifida

a deficiency of what vitamin results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood

folate

what substance is known to adversely affect folate utilization

regular use of antacids

what is representative of folate availability in foods

much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation

what is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin b12

intrinsic factor which attaches itself to the vitamin allowing absorption into the intestine
-pepsin
-hydrochloric acid

pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin b12

the absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis

vitamin b12

if a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for

vitamin b12
3 yrs

which of the following is a feature of vitamin b12 bioavailability

synthetic b12 in supplements form is highly utilizable

what is a characteristic of vitamin b12

it is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave

the adult RDA for vitamin b12 is

2.4

which of the following vitamins has an RDA

cobalamin

which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body

carnitine

what is not known to be required in the diet of humans

lipoic acid

what is frequently affected by deficiencies of the b vitamins

tongue (smooth tongue)

what characteristic is shared by vitamins b6 b12 c and folate

consumption prevents anemia

function of vitamin c

antioxidant agent
cofactor in collagen formation

the protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

collagen

why might vitamin c supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold

they deactivate histamine

which of the following is an early sign of vitamin c deficiency

bleeding gums

in the us what is the RDA for adults for vitamin c
how much more vitamin c

75-90 mg

what term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not

false positive

a vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that is

100% or more of the daily value

what are the features of the fat-soluble vitamins

requires bile for absorption
found in the fat and oily parts of foods
pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water-soluble vitamins

what is the major carrier of the fat soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation

chylomicrons

what is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins

deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

if the diet contain precursor vitamin a which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin a

intestinal cells

what food substance can be converted to vitamin a in the body

beta-carotene

how many different forms of vitamin a are active in the body

3

all of the following are forms of vitamin a

retinol
retinal
retinoic acid

which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin a from the liver to other tissues

retinol-binding proteins

vitamin a does not play an important role in what process

blood clotting

what describes an association of vitamin a and vision

light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration

approx what % of the body's vitamin a stores are found in the liver

90

which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin a in bone health

it assist enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone therapy allowing remodeling to occur

why does vitamin a status depend on the person's protein status

transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein

the first detectable sign of vitamin a deficiency is usually

night blindness
-xerosis
-most severe in newborns

what occurs from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin a

xerophthalmia
-keratinization: cornea is most affected

the preferred unit of expression of vitamin a is the

retinol activity equivalent

how many micrograms of dietary beta carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent

12

the rda for vitamin A is approx

800 retinol activity equivalents
pregnant women limit vit a to less than 4 times the RDA

what is a feature of carotenoids in food

absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing

what provides the least amount of precursor vitamin a

corn

the plant version of vitamin d is known as
animal version?

ergocalciferol
cholecalciferol

all of the following are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin d

skin
liver
kidney

which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor the body's synthesis of vitamin d

cholesterol

in what tissues must a molecule of vitamin d be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active

liver and kidney

the major target organs for the action of activated vitamin d include

bone
kidney
intestine

what is the main function of vitamin d

promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

name of the vitamin d disease in adults

osteomalacia
adult women

what is not known to promote vitamin d deficiency in the elderly

excessive use of hypertension medications

what is a characteristic of vitamin d nutrition

prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin d precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin d toxicity

what vitamin prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins

e- acts as a antioxidant

what is the role of vitamin e in the metabolism of free radicals

eliminator

the major function of vitamin e is to inhibit the destruction of

polyunsaturated fatty acids

what disorder may result from vitamin e deficiency in people

erythrocyte hemolysis

which of the following is a property of the tocopherols

easily destroyed by air and oxygen

what is a major source of vitamin e in the diet

vegetable oils

what properties do vitamin d and k share

both are synthesized by the body

what is prothrombin

a protein needed for blood clot formation

in what chief capacity does vitamin k function

blood clotting
it participates in synthesis of bone proteins

what is a feature of osteocalcin

it requires vitamin k to blind to bone-forming minerals

all of the following are features of vitamin k in nutrition

infants frequently require a supplement at birth
-good food sources are plants of the cabbage family
-risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods

what organ would you expect to find vitamin k in in large quantities

liver

what is a feature of vitamin k

no adverse effects have been reported with high intakes

what type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines

green leafy vegetables

approx what % of the body's store of vitamin k is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis

50

which is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin

cyanocobalamin

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