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Principle of Segregation

In the formation of gametes, the genes separate in such a way that each gamete is equally likely to contain either member of the pair.

Dominant trait

Expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is either heterozygous or homozygous

Recessive trait

Expressed in the phenotype when a genotype is homozygous for the alternative allele.

Principle of Independent Assortment

Segregation of the members of any pair of alleles is independent of the segregation of other pairs in the formation of reproductive cells.

Addition rule

The probability of the realization of one or the other of two mutually exclusive possibilities, A or B, is the sum of their separate probabilities

Multiplication rule

The probability of two independent possibilities, A and B, being realized simultaneously is given by the product of their separate probabilities

Variable expressivity

Genes that are expressed to different degrees in different organisms

Penetrance

Proportion of organisms whose phenotype matches their genotype for a given trait.

Epistasis

When one gene masks the expression of another

Key ingredients for PCR

Template DNA
Primers
DNA polymerase
dNTP's

Key steps for PCR

Heat/denature
Cool/anneal
Polymerize/copy

Fundamental limitation for PCR

Primer sequences MUST be known

Vectors

Plasmids used for in vitro cloning of foreign DNA fragments

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