Principle of Segregation
In the formation of gametes, the genes separate in such a way that each gamete is equally likely to contain either member of the pair.
Expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is either heterozygous or homozygous
Expressed in the phenotype when a genotype is homozygous for the alternative allele.
Principle of Independent Assortment
Segregation of the members of any pair of alleles is independent of the segregation of other pairs in the formation of reproductive cells.
The probability of the realization of one or the other of two mutually exclusive possibilities, A or B, is the sum of their separate probabilities
The probability of two independent possibilities, A and B, being realized simultaneously is given by the product of their separate probabilities
Genes that are expressed to different degrees in different organisms
Proportion of organisms whose phenotype matches their genotype for a given trait.
When one gene masks the expression of another
Key ingredients for PCR
Key steps for PCR
Fundamental limitation for PCR
Primer sequences MUST be known
Plasmids used for in vitro cloning of foreign DNA fragments