III. The Thoracic Cavity

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Exam 4

What is the cervical fascia above the first rib?

Superior boundary of the thoracic cavity

What is the superior boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Cervical fascia above the first rib

What is the inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Diaphragm

What originates at the xiphoid process, ribs 7-12, & the anterior surface of lumbar vertebrae?

Diaphragm

What originates here: xiphoid process, ribs 7-12, & anterior surface of lumbar vertebrae

Diaphragm

What is the anterior boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Sternum

What form the posterior boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Thoracic vertebrae

What form the lateral boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Ribs & intercostal muscles

What thoracic boundary is formed by the sternum?

Anterior boundary

What thoracic boundary is formed by the thoracic vertebrae?

Posterior boundary

What thoracic boundary is formed by the ribs & intercostal muscles?

Lateral boundary

What are a double-layered membrane formed from epithelium & connective tissue?

Pleurae

What is the potential space formed between the visceral & parietal pleura?

Pleural cavity

How many types of pleura are found in the thoracic cavity?

2

Hey girl :)

HAYYY

What is the pleural cavity?

potential space formed between the visceral & parietal pleura

What are the types of pleura found in the thoracic cavity?

Parietal pleura & visceral pleura

What is the portion of the pleura, which lines the chest cavity?

Parietal pleura

What is the portion of the pleura, which covers the lungs?

Visceral pleura

What is the area between the right & left lung?

Mediastinum

What is the mediastinum laterally bounded by?

lungs

What is the mediastinum anteriorly bounded by?

sternum

What is the mediastinum posteriorly bounded by?

thoracic vertebrae

What is the mediastinum inferiorly bounded by/

diaphragm

What structures are found within the mediastinum?

heart & great vessels

What is an endocrine gland overlying the anterior surface of the heart?

Thymus

What continues from the neck into the mediastinum & divides into the right & left primary bronchi?

Trachea

What is a ridge on the inner surface of the distal trachea at the bifurcation into the primary bronchi?

Carina

What does the trachea divide into?

right & left primary bronchi

What is posterior to the trachea & is continuous at its inferior end with the stomach?

Esophagus

What join at the esophageal sphincter, just inferior to the diaphragm?

stomach & esophagus

Where do the stomach & esophagus join at?

Esophageal sphincter

What courses cranially through the thoracic cavity along the left, posterior chest wall?

Thoracic duct

What enters the blood circulatory system & empties lymph into the junction of the left internal jugular vein & left subclavian vein?

Thoracic duct

What nerves continue from the neck & pass through the mediastinum & innervate visceral structures of the thorax, including the heart?

Right & left vagus nerves (CN X)

What innervate the diaphragm in the thoracic cavity?

Phrenic nerves

What nerves does the phrenic nerve arise from?

Cervical nerves 3, 4, & 5

What are paired organs consisting primarily of alveoli & branching from bronchial tubes?

Lungs

Which lung has 3 lobes?

Right lung

Which lung has only 2 lobes/

Left lung

What is the superiorly pointing, cone-shaped part of the lung?

Apex of the lung

What is a groove in the medial surface of each lung through which blood vessels & bronchi enter & exit the lung?

Hilus of the lung

What consists of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, primary bronchi, nerves & lymph vessels?

Root of the lung

What is the part of the lung that touches the inner side of the ribs & intercostal muscles?

Costal surface of the lung

What aspect of the lung faces the heart?

Mediastinal surface of the lung

What contains the root of the lung?

Mediastinal surface of the lung

What aspect of the lung is a concave, inferior surface that touches the superior border of the diaphragm?

Diaphragmatic surface

What are the two lobes of the left lung?

Superior & inferior lobes

What separates the inferior from the superior lobe of the left lung?

Oblique fissure

What are two distinct impressions on the medial surface of the left lung?

Cardiac impression & groove for the aorta

What are the 3 lobes of the right lung?

superior, middle, & inferior lobes

What separates the superior & middle lobes of the right lung?

oblique

What separates the inferior lobe from the middle & superior lobes of the right lung?

Oblique fissure

What are a series of successively branching & increasingly tiny passageways within each lung?

Bronchi

What transport inhaled air to the respiratory portion of the lungs?

Bronchi

What enter the lung at the hilus?

Primary bronchi

How many primary bronchi enter each lung?

1

What branch from the primary bronchi to each lobe of the lung?

Secondary bronchi

Which lung has 2 secondary bronchi?

Left lung (two lobes)

Which lung has 3 secondary bronchi?

Right lung (three lobes)

What are smaller tubes branching to each segment of lung tissue?

Segmental (tertiary) bronchi

What are a microscopic series of successively branching & increasingly tiny passageways for inhaled air?

Bronchioles

What are continuous with the tertiary bronchi?

largest bronchioles

What is a fist-sized muscular organ located in the mediastinum, which pumps blood through blood vessels to all organs & tissues of the body?

Heart

What is divided into pulmonary & systemic circuits?

Cardiovascular system

What is the cardiovascular system divided into?

pulmonary & systemic curcuits

What circuit involves the right side of the heart?

Pulmonary circuit

What leaves the right ventricle & carries deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs?

Pulmonary trunk

What return fresh oxygenated blood to the left atrium?

Pulmonary veins

What circuit involves the left side of the heart?

Systemic circuit

In the systemic circuit, oxygenated blood is pumped through what to reach the left ventricle?

bicuspid valve

In the systemic circuit, blood is pumped through the _______ _________, through the aorta, & throughout the body.

Aortic semilunar valve

What is the heart enclosed in?

tough fibrous connective tissue sac

What is the most external layer of the sac enclosing the heart?

Fibrous pericardium

What is the layer found beneath the fibrous pericardium?

Serous pericardium

What is a double-layered sac comprised of the parietal pericardium & visceral pericardium?

Serous pericardium

Which layer is the epicardium of the heart?

Visceral pericardium

What is located between the visceral & parietal layers of the serous pericardium & contains a thin layer of serous fluid?

Pericardial cavity

Where is the pericardial cavity located?

between the visceral & parietal layers of the serous pericardium

What can be found in the pericardial cavity?

thin layer of serous fluid

What does the aorta rise from?

Left ventricle

What is a continuous vessel, but has separately named parts in each of the body?

Aorta

What are the regions of the aorta within the thoracic cavity?

Ascending aorta, aortic arch, & thoracic aorta

What are the only branches extending from the ascending aorta?

Coronary arteries

What do the coronary arteries branch from?

Ascending aorta

What is the curved portion of the aorta?

Aortic arch

What are the branches extending from the aortic arch?

Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, & left subclavian artery

Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, & left subclavian artery all branch from what?

Aortic arch

What is the first branch of the aortic arch?

Brachiocephalic artery

What branch of the aortic arch divides into the right subclavian & right common carotid artery?

Brachiocephalic artery

What does the brachiocephalic artery branch into?

Right subclavian & right common carotid artery

What is the middle artery arising from the aortic arch?

Left common carotid artery

What branch of the aortic arch splits into the left external & left internal carotid artery?

Left common carotid artery

What is the third branch arising from the aortic arch?

Left subclavian artery

What branch of the aortic arch supplies blood to the upper limb & structures of the neck?

Left subclavian artery

What is the first branch from the subclavian artery?

vertebral artery

The vertebral artery is the first branch arising from what artery?

Subclavian artery

What arises from the right ventricle & divides into the right pulmonary & left pulmonary arteries?

Pulmonary trunk

What connect with the mediastinal surface of the lungs?

Pulmonary arteries

Which surface of the lungs connect with the pulmonary arteries?

Mediastinal surface

What return blood to the right atrium?

Superior vena cava & inferior vena cava

To where do the superior vena cava & inferior vena cava return blood?

Right atrium

What is returning deoxygenated blood from the head, neck, & arms?

Superior vena cava

What is returning deoxygenated blood from the abdomen & lower extremities?

Inferior vena cava

What is a J-shaped vein that returns blood from tghe chest wall & usually drains into the superior vena cava?

Azygos vein

What are the two superior chambers of the heart?

Right & left atrium

What are considered to be the "receiving chambers" of the heart?

Right & left atrium

Which atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body?

Right atrium

Which atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?

Left atrium

What are "ear-shaped" expansions of the atria? (Atria is plural for atrium)

Auricles

What are the two inferior chambers of the heart?

Right & left venticle

Which ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary arteries & to the lungs?

Right ventricle

Which ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to the body?

Left ventricle

How many layers compose the heart wall?

3

What is the innermost layer of the heart wall, made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?

Endocardium

What is the middle layer of the heart wall, formed from cardiac muscle tissue?

Myocardium

What is the outer layer of the heart wall, made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?

Epicardium

What is the epicardium composed of?

SSE (Simple squamous epithelial tissue)

What is the myocardium composed of?

Cardiac muscle tissue

What is the endocardium composed of?

SSE (Simple squamous epithelial tissue)

What divide the heart lengthwise?

Septa

What separates the right atrium from the left atrium?

Interatrial septum

What separates the right ventricle from the left ventricle?

Interventricular septum

How many types of valves does the heart possess?

2

What are the 2 types of valves located within the heart?

Atrioventricular & Semilunar valves

What type of valves are located between the atria & ventricles?

Atrioventricular valves

What type of valves are located at the base of the aorta & the base of the pulmonary trunk?

Semilunar valves

What is the remnant of the foramen ovale of the heart, located in the wall of the right atrium?

Fossa ovalis

What is the remnant of the ductus arteriosus, a connection between the pulmonary trunk & the aorta?

Ligamentum arteriosum

What were both shunts in the fetal heart, taking blood away from pulmonary circulation?

foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus

What is an "ear-shaped" expansion of the right atrium on the external surface of the heart?

Right auricle

What is a large vein entering the superior portion of the right atrium?

Superior vena cava

What is a large vein entering the inferior portion of the right atrium?

Inferior vena cava

What is the blood vessel that drains blood from the cardiac veins & back into the right atrium?

Coronary sinus

What travels horizontally along the posterior surface of the heart between the atria & ventricles & enters the right atrium?

Coronary sinus

What is an oval depression in the wall of the right atrium?

Fossa ovalis

What are muscular ridges located on the inner surface of the right auricle & right atrium?

Pectinate muscles

Pectinate muscles are not present in which atrium?

left atrium

What valve has 3 cusps?

Tricuspid valve

What is the valve between the right atrium & right ventricle?

tricuspid valve

What are tendinous cords attached to the inferior surface of the tricuspid valve?

Chordae tendinae

What are cone-shaped extensions of the ventricular myocardium which attach the chordae tendinae to the internal surface of the heart wall?

Papillary muscles

When does the tricuspid valve close?

When the right ventricle contracts

What are muscular ridges within the right ventricle?

Trabeculae carneae

What valve has 3 cusps projecting inferiorly into the right ventricle?

tricuspid valve

What valve does not have chordae tendineae attached to it?

aortic semilunar valve & pulmonary semilunar valve

When does the pulmonary semilunar valve open?

As the right ventricle contracts

What guards the opening to the pulmonary trunk & prevents the back flow of blood into the right ventricle?

Pulmonary semilunar valve

What receives oxygenated blood from 4 pulmonary veins?

Left atrium

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