Milady's Esthetics Chapter 12 Chemistry Ingredients and Selection

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Cosmetic Act of 1938

Distinguishes between drugs and cosmetics. Drugs affect function or structure, cosmetics promote attractiveness altering the appearance.

Functional Ingredients

Allow products to spread, give them body and texture, and give them a specific form such as a lotion or a cream.

Performance ingredients

Cause
actual changes in the appearance of the skin.

Cosmeceuticals

Strong performance ingredients intended to improve the skin's health and appearance.

Anhydrous

No water.

Emollients

Fatty materials-plant or animal derived-vehicle or performance ingredient

Lubricants

Coat the skin and reduce friction

Fatty Acids

derived from plant oils or animal fats

fatty alcohols

fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen

fatty esters

produced from fatty acids and fatty alcohols

silicones

oils chemically combined with silicone and oxygen, leave a noncomedogenic protective film on the surface of the skin.

Comedogenicity

the tendency of any topical substance to cause or worsen a buildup of dead cells in the follicle.

Surfactants

Reduce the surface tension between the skin and the product.

Detergents

Primarily a surfactant used to cleanse, form an emulsion to lift dirt and oil from the skin.

Emulsifiers

surfactants that cause oil and water to mix and form an emulsion

Oil soluble/water soluble

mixable substances

Gellants

Give products gel like consistency

Carbomers

Thicken creams

Aromatherapy

Therapeutic use of plant aromas and essential oils

Preservatives

Prevent bacteria and other microorganisms from living in a product.

Chelating Agents

Chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of a preservative.

Antioxidants

substances that inhibit oxidation reactions.

Certified colors

Synthetic, inorganic, metal salts.

Colorants

substances such as vegetable, pigment, or mineral dyes that give products color.

Noncertified Colors

Organic, plant extracts, natural pigments

Ph Adjuster

acids or alkalies

Solvents

Dissolve other ingredients

Botanicals

ingredients derived from plants

Healing agents

chamomile, licorice, azulene, and aloe, that heal the skin.

Hydrators(humectants)

attract water to the skin's surface

Lipids

Used to improve hydration, plumpness, and smoothness of skin.

Exfoliation

Removal of dead corneum cells

Alpha Hydroxy Acids of Beta Hydroxy Acids

Work by loosening the bond between cells in the surface of the corneum

Enzyems

Dissolve keratin proteins on the surface of the skin. Maintain the hydration level of the epidermis

Delivery Systems

Deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis

Vehicles

Spreading agents and carrying bases nescessary for the formulation of a cosmetic.

Liposomes

Closed lipid bilaryer spheres that encapsulate ingredients, targeted delivery, controled release

Polymers

Chemical compounds formed by a number of small molecules

Antioxidants

Neutralize free radicals before they can attach themselves to the cell membrane and destroy the cell

Polyglucans

Help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism

Tissue Repair Factor (TRF)

Functions as anti inflammatory and moisturizing agent.

Peptides

Chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in the skin's appearance.

Peptides

Chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in the skins appearance

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