Theory:"Social (or Observational) Learning Theory". Bandura found that children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, This may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others'experiences.
Theories:"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
Theory:"Learning through Experience" Dewey is considered the "father" of progressive education practice that promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences, such as project-based learning, cooperative learning, and arts integration activities. He theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution to prepare for future living. He believed that schools should teach children to be problem-solvers by helping them learn to think as opposed to helping them learn only the content of a lesson. He also believed that students should be active decision-makers in their education. Dewey advanced the notion that teachers have rights and must have more academic autonomy.
Theory:"Eight Stages of Human Development" Erik Erikson was a psychologist who suggested the following eight stages of human development, which are based on a crisis or conflict that a person resolves.
Theory:"Stages of the Ethic of Care" Gilligan's work questions the male-centered personality psychology of Freud and Erikson, as well as Kohlberg's malecentered stages of moral development. She proposed the stage theory of the moral development of women:
Theory:"Theory of Moral Development" Elementary school-aged children are generally at the first level of moral development, known as "Preconventional." At this level, some authority figure's threat or application of punishment inspires obedience. The second level, "Conventional," is found in society. Stage 3 is characterized by seeking to do what will gain the approval of peers or others. Stage 4 is characterized by abiding the law and responding to obligations. The third level of moral development, "Post-conventional," is rarely achieved by the majority of adults, according to Kohlberg. Stage 5 shows an understanding of social mutuality and genuine interest in the welfare of others. Stage 6 is based on respect for universal principles and the requirements of individual conscience.
Theory: "Hierarchy of Needs" Maslow is known for establishing a theory of a hierarchy of needs in which certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be met.
Theory: "Follow the Child"
"Stages of Cognitive Development"
"Zone of Proximal Development"