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"India and China" Glencoe World History Chapter 3

Himalaya

the highest mountains in the world

Indus River

west of the Ganges River, this river establishes a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of the modern state of Pakistan

Monsoon

a seasonal wind in southern Asia

Harappa

A large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan

Mohenjo Daro

second city in early Harappan civilization south west of Harappa

Aryans

moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India

Sanskrit

Indo-European language

Varnas

Another word for the social classes in the Caste system that ranked people from high to low

Caste System

Divided Indian society into groups based on a person's birth, wealth, or occupation.

Hinduism

A religion native to India, featuring belief in many gods and reincarnation

Yoga

a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God

Reincarnation

the rebirth of an individual's soul in a different form after death

Karma

In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life

Dharma

in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society

Buddhism

a religions doctrine introduced in northern India in the sixth century B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama known as the Buddha, or "Enlightened One"

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha

Nirvana

ultimate reality

Asoka

The grandson of Chandragupta, who is considered the best leader of the Mauryan Empire.

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

pilgrims

people who journey to a religious place

Faxian

Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India in search of documents about the teachings of the Buddha

Vedas

Earliest known Indian literature, which contains religious chants and stories that were originally passed down orally from generation to generation and then recorded in Sanskrit after writing developed

Bhagavad Gita

sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle

Kalidasa

one if ancient India's greatest writers during the Gupta era

Aryabhata

most famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire and the first scientist known to have used algebra

Huang He

stretches across China for roughly 2,900 miles also known as the Yellow River; yellow silt for farming

Chang Jiang

(Yangtze River) the longest river in Asia, flowing about 3,400 miles from central China to the Yellow Sea

aristocracy

an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another

Mandate of Heaven

claim by Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority from heaven to rule and to keep order in the universe

Dao

the proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven

Filial Piety

the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family

Pictographs

picture symbols

Ideographs

chararcters that join 2 or more pictographs to represent an idea

Confucius

known to the chinese as the First Teacher

Confucianism

the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity

Daoism

a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi

Laozi

founder of Daoism

Legalism

a popular philosophy developed in China toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it proposes that human beings are evil by nature and can only be brought to the correct path by harsh laws

Qin Shihuangdi

first leader of the Qin dynasty

Gobi

Desert that separates China from Mongolia

Xiongnu

a confederation of nomadic tribes from the Gobi area with a ruling class of unknown origin.

Regime

a government in power

censorate

inspectors who checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their jobs

Liu Pang

of peasant origin, but became known by his title of Han Gaozu - Exalted Emperor of Han

Han Wudi

the Martial Emperor of Han, added the regions south of the Chang Jiang

South China Sea

a tropical arm of the Pacific Ocean near southeastern Asia subject to frequent typhoons

Four Noble Truths

the simple message that is the basis of Buddhism

Bodhi

a key step in achieving nirvana, the root of both the word Buddhism and Buddha, means "wisdom"

8 Fold Path

a way to end desire and thus suffering; also know as the Middle Path

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