An abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.
The formation of new blood vessels.
Fatty deposit build up on arterial walls that can partially or completely occlude arteries.
Coronary Heart Disease
(The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.)
(Swelling caused by excess fluid in the body tissues.)
(Deficiency of oxygen in body tissues.)
(Local and temporary lack of blood flow due to the mechanical obstruction of the circulation to a part of the body; may result in infarct if the circulation is withheld too long.)
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
(A calculated average of systolic and diastolic blood pressures; calculated by adding the diastolic pressure to one third of the pulse pressure. Diastolic + 1/3 pulse pressure = MAP)
(A sudden drop in blood pressure when rising to sit or stand.)
(Processes or substances produced by cells that act on adjacent cells.)
(An interaction between mind and body that can produce illness.)
(Marked by or occurring in pulsations.)
(Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic - Diastolic = Pulse Pressure)
(Shock, or lack of perfusion, brought on not by blood loss, but by inadequate pumping action of the heart. It is often the result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.)
(Shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss.)
(Type of shock common in cases of damage to the brain or spinal cord that causes a loss of sympathetic control in the circulatory system which results in vasodilation and relative hypovolemia.)
(A severe, widespread acute hyoersensitivity that occurs when an allergen is introduced to the bloodstream of an allergic individual. characterized by bronchoconstriction, labored breathing, widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death. antihistamines are inadequate to counter this type of hypersensitivity, but epinephrine relieves the symptoms by dilating the bronchioles, increasing cardiac output, and restoring blood pressure.)
(Shock that develops as the result of infection carried by the bloodstream, eventually causing dysfunction of multiple organ systems.)
("Transient Ischemic Attack", also "mini-stroke", starts like a stroke but then resolves leaving no noticeable symptoms or deficits.)
Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures; also known as a bleed.)
(A pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure.)
(Passage of material across endothelium in tiny vesicles by endocytosis and exocytosis.)
(RBC loss as a result of acute or chronic loss of blood.)
Reduction in erythrocytes due to excessive, premature cell destruction.)
(Severe form of anemia due to a loss of functioning red bone marrow.)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
(Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin.)
(Progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.)
Sickle Cell Anemia
(A genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape.)
(Increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood.)
(Malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow.)
(Describes any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal.)
(A stationary clot. When it has grown enough to close off a blood vessel, it is called a thrombosis.)
(A circulating blood clot (or air bubble) in the bloodstream. When it causes sudden closure of a blood vessel, it is called an embolism.)
(A blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood, leading to impairment of blood clotting.)
(A hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding.)
(The formation of new blood vessels.)
Passage of blood cells through the unruptured walls of capillaries into the tissue spaces (an important part of the inflammatory response mechanism)
(The formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow).)
(Formation of leukocytes (white blood cells); driven by many different chemical factors.)
(Attracted to particular chemical signals released by damaged cells or other WBCs).
(A complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds.)
(Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells.)
(A protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen.)
(Plasma transport protein that carries iron.)
(Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into most any type of cell.)
(A measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood.)
(The pressure that must be exceeded before ejection of blood from the ventricles can occur.)
Mechanical compression (not pressure!) of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion.)
(Chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation.)
Second Degree Heart Block
Type I - Progressive lengthening of the P-R complex over multiple beats resulting in a skipped beat (normal p-wave but no QRS complex), which then resets the pattern. Type II - Normal P-R complex, but not every P wave results in a QRS complex (ie. only every second P generates a QRS.)
(Valves do not close completely and allow blood to flow backwards. Instead of making a normal 'lub' or 'dup' sound, valve makes a murmuring or whooshing sound that can be heard on auscultation.)
(Higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood.)
(Abnormally low level of calcium in the blood.)
(First phase of ventricular contraction pushes AV valves closed but does not create enough pressure to open semilunar valves. (Ventricular volume stays the same))
(Destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle.)
(Volume of blood that fills the heart and stretches the heart muscle fibers during its resting phase (volume of blood in ventricles at end of diastole, just prior to contraction))
(Contraction phase of the heartbeat.)
(Chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries.)
(Abnormally low heart rate. ~ <60bpm)
(Relaxation phase of the heartbeat.)
First Degree Heart Block
(P-R interval that is greater than 0.2 seconds)
Third Degree Heart Block
((Complete heart block) No atrial impulses are conducted through the AV node. Heart has regular atrial activity and regular ventricular activity, but the activities are not coordinated with each other (Two separate rhythms). R-R always regular.)
(An abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.)
An abnormally high level of sodium in the blood.
An abnormally low level of potassium in the blood.
(Immediately after ventricular ejection) Semilunar valves close passively, volume of blood doesn't change, all valves are closed, pressure falling in left ventricle.
Inflammation of the pericardium.
Fused cells that function as one large multinucleated cell, as in cardiac muscle which is interconnected via intercalated discs and gap junctions.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat. ~ >100bpm
Erythropoietin: Produced by kidneys, received by bone marrow as a signal to initiate erythropoiesis.
Thrombopoietin: Produced by liver and kidneys, signals bone marrow to produce megakaryocytes, which then break off to form platelets.
(Reticulocyte Count): A blood test that measures how fast reticulocytes are made and released into the blood.
Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil
The five leukocyte types, from most to least abundant.
The phagocytic lymphocytes.
Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil
Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+
Four most common cations in plasma.
Cl-, HCO3- (hydrogen carbonate)
Two most common anions in plasma.
Component of blood most responsible for the colloid osmotic potential.
ISF vs Plasma similarities
1. Both are mostly water.
2. Both have equal ion, nutrient, and gas concentrations.
3. Both have identical Ph's (7.35-7.45)
ISF vs Plasma differences
Proteins are more abundant in plasma than in ISF.
The state of partial contraction that most vascular smooth muscle is in at all times.
Myogenic Regulation of Local Blood Flow
The ability of vascular smooth muscle to regulate its own state of contraction.
Stages of ECG Wave
P-wave - Atrial depolarizaion, QRS complex - Ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization, T-wave - Ventricular repolarization
Effect of Paracrines on BV Diameter
High CO2, H+, K+, NO (Nitric Oxide), and Histamine - Increase blood flow to local area. Low O2 - Same effect.
Filtration/Absorption Balance Along the Length of a Capillary
Atrial end: Net filtration
Venous end: Net absorption
Middle: No net movement
Capillary exchange based on pressure gradient; regulation of fluid volumes.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure
The main solute difference between plasma and ISF is due to proteins which are present in plasma but mostly absent from ISF. The osmotic gradient created from this solute difference tends to keep fluids within the circulatory system and is referred to as colloid osmotic pressure.
How is Lymph Formed?
Gaps in lymph vessels allow in fluids, interstitial proteins and assorted particulates such as bacteria via bulk flow. Once these are within the lymphatic system, this fluid is called lymph.
Methods of Capillary Exchange
Paracellular Pathway: Exchange between endothelial cells.
Transendothelial Pathway: Movement through cells.
Bulk Flow: Mass movement between blood and ISF due to osmotic/hydrostatic pressure gradients.
Why Does Malnutrition in Children Cause Ascites (swollen belly)?
Low protein diet which results in low concentration of plasma proteins. Capillary absorption is reduced while filtration remains constant, leading to net loss of fluid and edema within the abdomen.
Neurotransmitter/Receptors of SA Node and Blood Vessels
SA Node: P-Symp (via vagus nerve) - Ach/muscarinic, Symp (via spinal nerves) - NE/B1
Arterioles and Veins: NE/Alpha (sympathetic control ONLY)
Baroreflex Feedback Loop (Low BP, as in Orthostatic Hypotension)
Stimulus: Low BP
Sensor: Baroreceptors in aortic arch and common carotid arteries
Afferent Signal: Sensory neurons of baroreceptors
Control Center: Medulla oblongata
Efferent Signal: Motor Neurons to...
Effectors: SA node (NE/B1), vascular smooth muscle (NE/Alpha), contractile myocardium (NE/B1)
Response: Vasoconstriction, increased HR/BP
Alternate Terms for RBC/WBC/Platelet
RBC - Erythrocyte
WBC - Leukocyte
Platelet - Thrombocyte
A glycochemoglobin, its presence in the plasma is directly related to hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose over the preceding 8-12 weeks, making it a good test for blood glucose abnormalities.
Movement of larger particles into/out of capillaries via vesicles.
Cytokines (General Definition)
Any number of substances that are secreted by specific cells of the immune system which carry signals locally between cells, which then have an effect on other cells