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Lincoln Plan

Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.

Johnson Plan

A plan that gave pardon to all those who took loyalty oaths. It punished plantation owners and forced states to abolish slavery before readmittance.

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

Congressional Plan

one vote per district of state and winner of popular vote in the state would get 2 extra votes for that state

Tenure of Office Act

required the president to secure consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved

Impeachment

charges against a president approved by a majority of the house of representatives

Scalawags

southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction

Carpet Baggers

name given to Southerners allied with northern Republicans who came south to take part in the region's political and economic rebirth.

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Sharecropping

system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops

Hayes-Tilden Compromise of 1877

presidential election in which Hayes is elected because he says he will remove the troops from the south that are there to protect freedmen.

Jim Crow

Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government

Plessy vs. Ferguson

a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"

Chivington Massacre

1864 massacre, where Colonel John Chivington and his militia slaughtered more than 200 cheyenne men, women, and children, who were trying to surrender

Buffalo Soldiers

Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s

Battle of Little Bighorn

In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died

Dawes Act

An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

Wounded Knee

In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.

Pacific Railway Act

1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

Boomers

Settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian Territory for settlement

Sooners

In 1889, people who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began

Bonanza

A rich mass of ore in a mine; something very valuable, profitable, or rewarding; a source of wealth or prosperity; a very large amount; sudden profit or gain

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