What is an organism?
Any living thing
What is a habitat?
A place where an organism lived and that provides for its needs
What are the 3 basic needs for survival?
Food, water and shelter
Differentiate between a carnivore, herbivore and omnivore.
Carnivore- Meat Eater
Herbivore- Plant Eater
Omnivore- Meat and Plant Eater
What are biotic factors? Give 3 examples.
Living factors in an environment that are essential.
Krill, Swordfish, Shark
What are abiotic factors? Give 3 examples.
Non-living factors in an environment that are essential.
Water, Sunlight, Oxygen
Do all living things need water?
What do plants use water and sunlight for?
What is soil?
Dirt and rock filled with nutrients that are necessary to grow.
Do all organisms need the same soil? Explain.
No, some need more or less nutrients and/or moisture.
Differentiate between species, population and community. Give a related example of each.
Species- a type of organism- killer whale
Population- All the members of a species in one area- pod
Community- different populations together- ocean; crabs, swordfish, shark
List the levels of organisation in order starting with species.
Species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
What is an ecosystem?
The community of organisms that live in a particular area
What is ecology?
The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment
An estimate in which organisms are counted in a small area and multiplied to find the overall numbers in a larger area
Why do scientists utilize sampling?
To have a quick, accurate estimate of something that could take longer to count
Differentiate between birth and death rate
Birth Rate- Births in a particular area in a specific amount of time.
Death Rate- Deaths in a particular area in a specific amount of time
Differentiate between immigration and emigration
Immigration- moving to a population
Emigration- leaving a population
What is carrying capacity?
The largest population that an area can support.
What is natural selection?
Unique characteristics that are best suited for their environment tend to survive and produce offspring.
What are adaptations?
Behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environment
What is a niche?
The role of an organism in its habitat
Give the specifics/mechanisms of a niche.
1. Food it eats.
2. How it obtains food.
3. Who uses that organism for its food.
4. How it reproduces.
5. Physical characteristics it needs to survive
What is competition?
The struggle between organisms to survive as they use the same limited resource
What is predation?
One organisms kills another for food
How does predation affect population size?
One will go up and the other will come down.
What are the 5 defense strategies of prey?
Mimicry, False Coloring, Protective Covering, Camouflage, Warning Coloring
Mimics another organism to avoid becoming prey
Cover for protection
African pangolin, turtle
Different coloring to scare off predators and appear as if it is a different organism
Moth with coloring as owl eyes
Coloring to blend in surroundings
Dragonfly looks like a tree bark
Colors that can tell that the organism is dangerous
The relationship between two species
What are the 3 types of symbiosis
Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
bats and a cactus
One benefits, other neither helped or harmed
Fish and anemone
One benefits, other harmed
Tick on a dog
What is succession?
The series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
What are the 2 types of succession?
Primary and Secondary Succession
2 examples of primary succession
What are pioneer species?
First species to be in an area after a primary succession event
How do they become established by an area?
Carried by wind or water
What are examples of pioneer species?
How do pioneer species help re-establish an ecosystem?
Help recreate and make new soil
What are lichens?
Symbiotic relationship between moss and fungus
How are lichens beneficial?
Help break up rocks and turn it into soil
Describe the 4 steps of primary succession
Fertile Soil and Maturing Plants
What is secondary succession?
the ecosystem is disturbed but the soil and organisms still exist
List 3 examples of secondary succession
Differentiate between primary and secondary succession
Primary- No soil or organisms exists
Secondary- Soil and organisms still exist