Protein synthesis

Created by Anatomynerd 

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25 terms

Protein synthesis

formation of proteins using information contained in DNA, carried by mRNA

Coding strand

the strand of DNA that is not used for transcription

Template strand

complementary to coding strand, provides template for strand of mRNA

Codon

sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA

Genes

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Histones

proteins that DNA wraps around

Promotor

DNA segment on gene that recognizes the enzyme RNA polymerase and thus begins transcription

Stop signal

DNA segment on gene that indicates the end of transcription

Gene activation

Disruping H bonds between DNA strands, removing histones that guard promotor

Transcription

process by which a DNA template is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule

Translation

process in which mRNA is translated into a protein

Mutation

change in the nucleotide sequence

Elongation

stage of transcription in which RNA nucleotides are added to the chain

Termination

stage of transcription in which the mRNA strand is released

Introns

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

Extrons

sequence of DNA that is involved in coding for a protein

mRNA

type of RNA that is the template for protein synthesis

rRNA

type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

tRNA

type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

A-site

binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain

P-site

binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain

E-site

binding site on ribosome where tRNA is discharged from ribosome

Point mutation

mutation through change in one nucleotide

Insertion

mutation involving the addition of a nucleotide

Deletion

mutation involving the deletion of a nucleotide

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