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Heredity

The passing of characteristics from one generation to the next

Genetics

The study of genetic material and how this material effect the characteristics of life forms. Also, the scientific study of heredity.

Philosophy

The branch of academic study devoted to systematic examination of basic concepts such as knowledge, truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom. The study of knowledge.

Natural philosophy

Science

Philosophy of Science

The branch of philosophy that sets the boundaries of science. Defines what is or not science.

Theory of gravity

Any two things with mass are attracted to each other

Inertia

is the tendency of an object to remain station or continue in a straight line unless acted up on.

Falsifiable

If we can imagine observations that we could make in the physical universe could disprove the idea.

Concept Gene

Gene as nucleic acid segment, DNA or RNA that can ultimately direct the production of RNA that affects the phenotype It includes at least one region of nucleotides.

Locus

the location on the DNA where the code for a particular characteristic is found.

Zygote

the single cell that results from the fusion of sperm and egg. (single cell embryo)

Allele

The particular sequence of nitrogenous bases found at a locus that codes for a particular characteristic.

Genotype

The list of alleles found at the locus or loci under consideration.

Phenotype

The characteristics of the life form other than the genotype. It includes the morphological, physiological, biochemical, behavioral characteristic.

Phenotype Variation

All the life forms in a population usually do not have the same phenotype

Principle of Allocation

No individual can collect an infinite number of resources. There are trade offs in organisms as it lives in different environmental types.

Norm of Reaction

Of a genotype is the total range of phenotypes produced by the genotypes in all possible environments

Drosophila melanogaster

fruit fly

Developmental Noise

random effects in development (usually at the molecular level) that lead to variation in phenotypes

Biotin

the vitamin essential for Drosophilia growth

Development Canalization

The process that buffers the development of the organism

Collinsia grandiflora

a plant with two cotyledons

Arabidopsis thaliana

first flowering plant ever sequenced

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the inability to break the amino acid phenylalanine.

Neurospora

a haploid fungus

Galactosemia

an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the inability to break the sugar galactose

Tay-Sachs

A rare human disease in which toxic substances accumulate in nerve cells. More frequent in Jewish sects in Eastern Europe.

Cystic Fibrosis

A rare recessive disease in which thick mucus builds up in the lungs.

Endosymbiotic Theory

The prokaryotic ancestors of plastids and mitochondria probably gained entry into the host cell as undigested prey or internal parasites.

Goal of Genetic Analysis

A goal of genetic analysis is to identify all the genes that affect a specific phenotype and to understand their genetic, cellular, developmental, and molecular roles.

Pleiotropic

The locus affect more than one trait

Complete Dominance

When the heterozygote has the same phenotype as one of the two homozygotes

Incomplete Dominance

When the heterozygote has a phenotype that is immediate between two homozygotes

Codominance

When each of the two alleles produces its full phenotype in the heterozygote

Multiple Allelism

Refers to more than two alleles at a locus

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