Treatment in which a trained professional—a therapist—uses psychological techniques to help a person overcome psychological dificulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth.
Therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning.
Therapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively.
Freudian psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior.
The transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient's parents or other authority figures.
Behavioral Treatment Approaches
Treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned.
A form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
A behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
A behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted either suddenly or gradually with a stimulus that they fear.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
A form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal.
Cognitive Treatment Approaches
Treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves.
A treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think.
Rational-emotive Behavior Therapy
A form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior.
Therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems.
Therapy in which the goal is to reach one's potential for self-actualization.
Shortterm therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships.
Drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms such as agitation, hallucinations, and delusions.
Medications that improve a severely depressed patient's mood and feeling of wellbeing.
Drugs that reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being.
A procedure used in the treatment of severe depression in which an electric current of 70-150 volts is briefly administered to a patient's head.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
A depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain.
Brain surgery once used to reduce the symptoms of mental disorder but rarely used today.
A branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community.