Microbio Chapter 4

25 terms by schmenk22

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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryote

comes from greek words for prenucleus

Eukaryote

comes from greek words for true nucleus

Characteristics of Prokaryote

1) one circular chromosome, not in a membrane
2) no histones
3) no organelles
4) peptidoglycan cell walls
5) binary fission

Characteristics of Eukaryote

1) paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane
2) histones present
3) organelles
4) polysaccharide cell walls
5) mitosis (or miosis)

Rod-shaped

Bacillus

Spherical

Coccus

Spiral - wave

Spirillum

Spiral - Curved Rod

Vibrio

Spiral - corkscrew

Spirochete

Two unusual shapes of bacteria

1) star shaped
2) hyphal (filamentous)

Pairs

diplo-
(diplococci, diplobacilli)

Chains

Strepto-
(streptococci, streptobacilli)

Clusters

Staphylo-
(staphylococci)

Two types of clusters

1) tetrads (4)
2) sarcinae (8)

Monomorphic

only one type of morphology

Pleomorphic

ability to change shapes depending on amount of nutrients

Two types of pleomorphic bacteria

1) Rhizobium
2) Corynebacterium

Typical size of prokaryote

1-2 micrometers

Typical size of eukaryote

10-100 micrometers

Advantage of small size?

Easier to metabolize faster, which leads to great amount of reproduction

Glycocalyx

Outside cell wall
usually sticky
made of polysaccharides, some proteins
Capsule and slime layer

Capsule Glycocalyx function

prevent phagocytosis, tight, good organization

Slime Layer Glycocalyx function

Allows cell to attach, loosely arranged, not as organized

Cell wall

prevents osmotic lysis
rigidity
shape
made of peptidoglycan (PG)

Peptidoglycan

Disaccharide polymer (NAG and NAM)
Tetrapeptide side chains
Peptide cross bridges

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