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test/essay review for chapters 35-36

Pearl Harbor - who, what, when, FDR quote

Japan attacks US without warning, beginning of US involvement in WWII, Dec. 7 1941. "A date which will live in infamy"

Battle of Midway - significance in the Pacific Theatre

Very important island base, pivotal victory for US, halts Japanese expansion in the Pacific

D-day, Normandy, Operation Overlord - date, why, significance

June 6, 1944. Happened because Allies needed to attack Germany and Normandy was not heavily protected. Start of the end for Hitler.

Rationing/price control - goods? Why?

Gas, butter, rubber, shoes, sugar, meat. Because goods were scarce

lend-lease

FDR lends arms to Britain on the promise of returnment. Taft is against this policy

Manhattan Project - why? funding? who?

Because Hitler was thought to be building his own atom bomb. FDR supported it. Produced by some Jews exiled from Germany; Einstien, Fermi, Bohr, Openheimer to name a few

Smith-Connally Act

Anti-strike Act, Feds can sieze/operate tied up industries, illegalizes strikes on government-operated industry. Used against coal mines and railroads.

VJ Day

Victory over Japan Day, September 2 1945

VE Day

Victory in Europe Day, May 8 1945, day that Germany surrendered.

Rosie the Riveter

Women that took jobs in heavy industry during WWII. There were 6 million of them.

London Conference

1933, 66 nations organize attack on global depression, wants stabilization of currency/exchange rates which hurts US economy so we withdraw. US withdrawal plunges world into deeper depression, and causes increased nationalism in all countries

Why did Roosevelt recognize the Soviet Union?

Hope for trade and a friendly power to counterweight Germany and Japan

Good Neighbor Policy

Policy to improve relations with Latin America. We release Cuba from the Platt Amendment. The policy is tested by Mexico when they steal some oil but it is peacefully resolved.

Spanish Civil War - Franco

General Franco, aided by Hitler and Mussolini, overthrow Loyalist regime. FDR wont send guns to the Loyalists

Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936, 1937

When president proclaims existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions go into effect, which says basically any American won't be able to associate with belligerants.

Munich Conference

Britain, France, US, Italy, Germany. Democracies try to appease Germany with land, but Hitler takes it and keeps on fighting.

Why didn't Americans come to the aid of the Jews?

Didn't know much about the camps, we were more concerned with protecting ourselves and democracy.

When did America's neutrality end?

March 1941 when lend-lease was approved.

Bases for Destroyers Deal

FDR trades 50 destroyers left from WWI for 8 valuable defense bases with Britain. Violation of neutrality.

Atlantic Charter

Between Churchill and FDR, 8 points. No territory change without consent of the inhabitants, affirms right of people to chose their own government.

FDR - election 1940

Representative Wendell Willkie, some liberal random, loses to FDR as he breaks the 2 term precedent set by George Washington

Japanese Internment

110k Japanese-Americans put in concentration camps by fearful/paranoid Americans. Unnecessary.

Why did women leave the workforce after WWII?

Because there are only so many jobs, because they don't have to support themselves anymore, because "women belong at home"

describe the shift of African Americans by the end of WWII - where were they living?

1.6 million blacks leave the South to fill jobs in war plants in the North and the West, causes segregation tension

Battle of Coral Sea

May 1942, first battle to stop Japan's island imperialism. All carrier based aircraft warfare, no enemies even saw eachother.

Island Hopping

US Navy with the Army and the Marines would "leapfrog" Japanese islands, as to create bases on easily captures islands so they could strategize attacks on well-fortified bases. Chester Nimitz led this

Battle of Leyte Gulf - result

3 battles, US wins all 3, end of Japan's Navy

Korematsu vs US

Upholds Japanese Internment, 1944

FDR's response to Japanese aggression in China - what passed? sanctions?

Refuses to call it a war, wants to "quarantine" dictators, FDR retreats to isolationism

Battle of Stalingrad

1942, Russians stall Germany, and then attack. They win and get 2/3rds of the land that Germany took

Battle of the Bulge

US driven back, "bulge" in Allied line. 10-day penetration by Germany halted by an airforce. Led by Brigadier General McAulliffe

Iwo Jima

Tiny island needed by US as haven for damaged planes, captures March 1945, 4000 americans die.

Reasons to drop the atomic bomb

US is butthurt, Japan is ruthless and didn't obey laws of international warfare, save American lives.

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