Chapter 18- The Later Middle Ages

24 terms by clairejohns 

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excommunicate

cast out from the church

Pope Gregory VII

he disapproved the bishop chosen by the Holy Roman Empire Emperor Henry IV

Emperor Henry IV

went against Pope Gregory VII, begged forgiveness

Crusades

were a long series of wars between Christians an Muslims in Southwest Asia

Holy Land

Europeans called it this because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died

Pope Urban II

called by the Byzantine Empire to help called all Christians to fight in the Crusades

King Richard I

led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade and earned respect from his enemies and Christians for his bravery

Saladin

Muslim general that led the Muslim army during the Third Crusade

clergy

church officials

religious order

a group people who dedicated their lives to religion and follow common rules

St. Francis of Assisi

encouraged people to be kind to others, started the Franciscan Order

Friars

people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public

Thomas of Aquinas

Dominican philosopher that argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs

natural law

a law that governed how the world operated

Magna Carta

this document listing rights that King John could not ignore, that required him to honor certain rights

Parliament

a lawmaking body that governs England today

Hundred Years' Wars

a long conflict between England and France

Joan of Arc

a French peasant girl, who rallied the French troops together during the Hundred Years' War

Black Death

a deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351

heresy

religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings

Reconquista

efforts to retake Spain from the Moors

King Ferdinand

King of Spain, he and his wife ended the Reconquista. Forced the Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave. Banned Islam

Queen Isabella

Queen of Spain. She ended the Reconquista with her husband. Banned Islam and forced all Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave. Paid for voyage of Christopher Columbus

Spanish Inquisition

an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion

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